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    About Authors: Shoeib Afroz Mohammad,
    M.Pharm (Pharmacology),
    Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy, Kakatiya University

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1087

    By the 1930s, scientists had isolated and determined the structure of the steroid hormones and found that high doses of androgens, estrogens or progesterone inhibited ovulation. The first oral-contraceptive formulations marketed in the United States, in 1960 and1961, contained 2 to 5 times as much estrogen and 5 to 10 times as much progestin as the oral contraceptives now in use. Since introduced in May of 1960, these pills have provided reliable contracep¬tion for millions of woman throughout the world.They were given in a regimen consisting of 21 active tablets containing estrogen and progestin followed by 7 days of placebo tablets (21/7 regimen). The 7 days of placebo was designed for menses to occur during that time. The use of these high-dose formulations was linked to increased risks of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism in healthy young women. The estrogen and progestin were reduced rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s because of concern about safety and because the reduction of the doses did not reduce the contraceptive effectiveness.The reductions in the dose of estrogen are believed to have decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. The combination estrogen–progestin oral contraceptives that are now on the market contain estrogen at doses ranging from 20 to 50 μg of ethinyl estradiol or, uncommonly, mestranol. Currently there are over 70 different brands on the market. 1


    About Authors: Dipak Kumar Dash
    M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
    Himalayan Pharmacy Institute
    East Sikkim, Majhitar

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1086

    Hazard is a term associated with a substance that is likelihood to cause an injury in a given environment or situation. Industrial hazard may be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property.    Safety in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence of risk or injury or loss. Industrial safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents.

  • Solid Dispersion a Promising Novel Approach for Improving the Solubility of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    About Authors: Kushwaha Anjali*
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of pharmacy,
    Bundelkhand university, Jhansi (U.P.), India

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1085

    Solid dispersions is an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of poorly soluble drugs. This article reviews the various types of solid dispersion, preparation techniques for solid dispersion and compiles some of the recent technologies. Some of the practical aspects to be considered for the preparation of solid dispersions, such as selection of carrier and methods of physicochemical characterization, along with nature of drugs in solid dispersions are also discussed. Finally, limited commercialization of solid dispersions and recent revival has been considered.

  • Nanoemulsion: A Versatile Drug Delivery System

    About Authors: Deepti Maithani *, Vikas Jain
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Meerut

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1084

    From the ancient time it has been the endeavor of the physician and the apothecary to provide patients with the best possible forms of medicine, for recovery from disease faster and completely within minimum adverse effects. Paul Ehrlich in1902 initiated the era of targeted delivery,who proposed drug delivery to be as magic bullet. An ideal drug delivery system is that fulfils the objective of spatial placement and temporal delivery resulting maximized therapeutic effect and least toxicity. With the progress in time and growth of science and technology, the dosage forms have evolved from simple mixtures and pills, to highly sophisticated technology intensive systems, which are known as novel drug delivery systems (NDDS). (1) A different approaches have materialized into various forms of NDDS such as microemulsions, multiple emulsions, liposomes, niosomes, micospheres, pharmacosomes, virosomes, dendrimers, etc.. Most often the problems associated with these delivery systems are their stability and predictability in biological systems which reduce their clinical potential, although each one is associated with its own strong points. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field today. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (U.S) nanotechnology is broadly defined as the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. (2) . Most often the problems associated with these delivery systems are their stability and predictability in biological systems which reduce their clinical potential, although each one is associated with its own strong points.

  • Medicinal Attributes of Meldrum’s Acid

    About Authors: Sahil Sharma

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1083

    One hundred years ago Scottish chemist Andrew Norman Meldrum synthesized a substance [1] that later obtained his name. To date Meldrum’s acid is one of the most useful reagents in the synthesis of heterocycles. In contrast to the great popularity of Meldrum’s acid, its discoverer remains almost unknown for the majority of chemists.
    Andrew Norman Meldrum [2] was born on 19th March, 1876, in a small burgh, Alloa, Scotland. In 1899 he received his B.Sc. with ?rst-class honors (chemistry) from the University of Aberdeen, where he worked as a research assistant with Francis Robert Japp [3].  
    In his ?rst independent publication [1], he studied the reaction between acetone and malonic acid and, following the suggestion of Prof. Japp, employed a mixture of acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid as condensing agent. From elemental analysis data, in conjunction with previous results and the acidic properties of the ?nal compound, he formulated the structure of the product to be β-lactone of β-hydroxyisopropylmalonic acid 1 (Scheme 1).

  • A Review on Complex Enhancer

    About Authors: Shahin Shahida, Seema Kathait

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1082

    In this report, we explored the mechanisms underlying keratinocyte-specific and differentiation-specific gene expression in the skin. We have identified five keratinocyte-specific, open chromatin regions that exist within the 6 kb of 5' upstream regulatory sequence known to faithfully recapitulate the strong endogenous keratin 5 (K5) promoter and/or enhancer activity. One of these, DNase I-hypersensitive site (HSs) 4, was unique in that it acted independently to drive abundant and keratinocyte-specific reporter gene activity in culture and in transgenic mice, despite the fact that it was not essential for K5 enhancer activity. We have identified evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements and a number of their associated proteins that bind to this compact and complex enhancer element. The 125-bp 3' half of this element (referred to as 4.2) is by far the smallest known strong enhancer element possessing keratinocyte-specific activity in vivo. Interestingly, its activity is restricted to a subset of progeny of K5-expressing cells located within the sebaceous gland. The other half of HSs 4 (termed 4.1) possesses activity to suppress sebocyte-specific expression and induce expression in the channel (inner root sheath) cells surrounding the hair shaft. Our findings lead us to a view of keratinocyte gene expression which is determined by multiple regulatory modules, many of which contain AP-2 and/or Sp1/Sp3 binding sites for enhancing expression in skin epithelium, but which also harbor one or more unique sites for the binding of factors which determine specificity. Through mixing and matching of these modules, additional levels of specificity are obtained, indicating that both transcriptional repressors and activators govern the specificity.


    About Authors: Mayank Panchal1*, Biren Shah1, Krishna Murti1, Megha Shah1
    1*Department of Pharmacognosy,
    Vidyabharti Trust College of Pharmacy,
    Umrakh, (Gujarat) INDIA

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1081

    Moringa oliefera Lam. is one of the best known and most widely distributed and naturalized species of a monogenetic family Moringaceae. The roots of plant were extracted with ethanol by soxhlet technique and aqueous extract of roots are prepared by maceration technique. Both the extracts are subjected to phytochemical screening. Require quantity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the plant which is used as test drug in Streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of the potential hypoglycemic effect of Moringa oliefera Lam. in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced Diabetes Mellitus.

  • Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy

    About Authors: Debojyoti Adak
    M.Pharm in Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Jharpokharia

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1080

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy is not much safer medication for cancer therapy. Now a day a new technology is developing regarding medication that is nanotechnology. As medication it is well known as nanomedication. It is based on the particle size between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers. Nanomedicine application areas include drug delivery, therapy, diagonistic, imaging and antimicrobial techniques.This article aims at giving an overview of the present status of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.

  • Prescription Monitoring of Antihypertensive Drug Utilization for Uncomplicated Hypertension Patients in a Tertiary Hospital: A Cross Sectional Study in the Inpatient Wards

    About Authors: N. V. R. Praveen Kumar. T, Mohanta. G. P, Sudarshan. S# and Parimalakrishnan. S.
    Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University,
    Annamalai Nagar – 608002.Tamil Nadu, India.
    # Department of Medicine, Rajah Muhtiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University,
    Annamalai Nagar – 608002.Tamil Nadu, India.

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1079

    The study was conducted to identify and evaluate the Prescription Monitoring of Antihypertensive Drug Utilization for Uncomplicated Hypertension Patients.

    This was a prospective observational study and was approved by IRB.  The study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital, which is located at southern part of India having 1210 beds.  Totally 1262 prescriptions were studied.

    Total distribution of patients with respect to age group showed that highest number of patients was found in the age group of 60-69 years (31.3%) and least was found between 20-29 years age group (1.1%). Majority of males in the study population (43.29%) were found to have both the habits of smoking and alcohol. Among concomitant diseases that were related to hypertension Coronary artery disease was highest (67.78%) and giddiness was least (1.7%). In case of diseases unrelated to hypertension Type II diabetes mellitus was observed as highest (38.7%) and acute gastroenteritis was recorded least (5.68%). Overall 43.5% patients were treated with single antihypertensive drug and 53.8% were treated with antihypertensive drug combinations.

  • Herbal Drug Development and Pharmacological Potential of Some Herbs

    About Authors: Amit Tamiya (M.Pharm), Dr. Gopal Rai,
    Department of Pharmacology Shri Ram Institute of Technology,
    Jabalpur (M.P.), India

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1078

    In the recent time the science is proved the new aspects of herbal medicine, as therapy to treat disease, known as phytotherapy, is to be developed. It include the nutritional sciences, in it the phytochemicals that are ingested in the form of complex mixtures that are incompletely characterized in the past whose scientific study is being performed. The new methodologies developed in the area of nutritional sciences can inform phytotherapy research, opportunities for observational studies. Randomized clinical trials of single - herb interventions are relatively easy to justify its pharmacological effect. However, phytotherapy is the natural therapy, using lifestyle advice, nutrition and individually use of the combination of herbs, for the restoring the homeostasis. Now the clinical trial evaluated, this approach is useful in a wide range of conditions, Central nervous system, Hepatoprotective, mental disorder including chronic disease, associated with the human being.

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