Development of HPTLC Finger Printing of Different Variety of Piper Betle Linn Leaf Oil Grown in Tamilnadu

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About Author:
Sugumaran M., T. Vetrichelvan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy,
Melmaruvathur - 603 319, Tamilnadu , India

High performance thin layer chromatographic finger print parameters had been developed for  Piper betle leaf oilisolated from karpoori, sirugamani and vellaikodi variety available in tamilnadu to fix standards. At shorter wavelength (254 nm) resolution was better for, so, this wavelength can be taken for obtaining optimum HPTLC finger printing for  volatile oil of this medicinal plant leaves. As per the data,   Karpoori variety of piper betle leaf oil  only showed  presence of  eugenol content. So, essential oil obtained from this variety should be included in the commercial tooth paste to get  antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens when compared to other studied variety.


Standardization of ayurvedic drugs and plant materials is the need of the day. Several pharmacopoeias containing monographs on plant materials describe only the physico- chemical parameters. Hence, modern methods describing the identification and quantification of active compounds in the plant material maybe useful for proper standardization of herbals and their formulation. Also, the world Health organization (WHO) assembly in its resolutions WHA 31.33 (1978), WHA 40.33 (1987) and WHA 42.43 (1989) has emphasized the need to ensure the quality of medicinal plant products using modern controlled techniques and applying suitable standards1,2.

Thin layer chromatography is employed to get TLC profile of various extracts and can be used in standardizing the raw drugs as well as the herbal formulations3. Ordinary TLC plates do not give better resolution particularly when the medicine involves the use of several herbs and quantification of markers by conventional solvent extraction followed by colorimetry is laborious and expensive. HPTLC offers better resolution and estimation of active principles can be done with reasonable accuracy in a shorter time 4.

The Piper betle (Tamil: vetrilai)is a glabrous climbing vine belonging to the family Piperaceae .  It is abundantly distributed in many Asian countries.  In India it is found in Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Andhra pradesh and Karnataka . In Tamilnadu, three varieties of Piper betel leaves, Sirugamani, Karpoori and vellaikodi  are available  mostly5. The chief constituent of the leaves is a volatile oil varying in chemical composition from different countries and known as betel oil. The active ingredient of piper betle oil which is obtained from the leaves are primary a class of allyl benzene compounds, chavibetol (betel-phenol; 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyallylbenzene),  Chavicol ( P- allyl-phenol; 4-allyl-phenol), Estragole (P-allyl-anisole; 4-methoxy-allylbenzene), Eugenol (allylguaiacol; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyallylbenzene; 2- methoxy-4-allyl-phenol), methyl Eugenol ( Eugenol methyl ether; 3,-dimethoxy-allylbenzene) and hydroxycatechol (2,4-dihydroxy-allylbenzene) 6. Previous  studies  on  the  betel  leaves,  roots  and  whole extract  (mixture  of  volatile  and  non-volatile)  of  the  green  variety  showed  a  very  strong anti microbial activity. In the South East Asia region, piper betle L, is among the plants that have been associated with the control of caries and periodontal diseases and to the control of bad breath in traditional practice 7Mouthwashes and tablets containing pulverized betel nuts were used for the treatment of dental and periodontal diseases 8.In the current investigation, HPTLC fingerprinting of leaf oil from Piper betle Linnisolated from karpoori , sirugamani and vellaikodi variety available in tamilnadu was studied to fix standards for authentication purpose.



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