A REVIEW ON MUSSAENDA SPECIES

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Mussaendaraiatensis
Mussaendaraiatensis,
a native of Tonga occurs in open places on ridges, in coastal to lowland forests, and is occasionally cultivated for its medicinal properties.

Phytoconstituents reported:
The preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of Ant+igononleptopusrevealed that presence of steroids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and glycosides, carotenoids, phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oil, lipids, monoterpenes, xanthenes and organic acids.

Biological activities reported:
The methanolic extract of aerial parts of Mussaendaraiateensispossesses significant hepatoprotective activity and may prove to be effective for the treatment of liver disorders.

The infusion of the bark is sometimes given to an infant believed to be ill or malnourished(15).

Mussaendamacrophylla
Mussaendamacrophylla
is found widely in Central and Eastern Nepal to about 1800 m in moist places inassociation with herbs and other shrubs. It is also found to occur in northern India, Southeastern China and Myanmar(11).

Phytoconstituents reported:
Four new triterpenoid glycosides were isolated from the root bark of Mussaendamacrophylla. Their structures were determined as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-16alpha- hydrox y-23-deoxyprotobassic acid (1), 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-16alpha- hydroxy- 23-deoxy protobassic+++acid (2), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-16alpha- hydroxyprotobassic acid (3), and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloarta-22,24-dien-27-oic acid (mussaendoside W, 4). Four known triterpenoids [3-O-acetyloleanolic acid (5), 3-O-acetyldaturadiol (6), rotundic acid (7), and 16alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid (8)] were also isolated.

Biological activities reported:
Oleanolic acid derivatives isolated fi'om the root bark of M. macrophylla exhibited differential inhibitory activity on the growth of Porphyromonasgingivalis, thegram-negative anaerobic oral bacterium, and most commonly associated with human gum disease 8. 3-O-Acetyloleanolic acid isolated from M macrophylla inhibited the growth of Porphyromonasgingivali.

Mussaendapubescens
Mussaendapubescens
is a liana-like shrub, distributed in shady hillside, valley and shrub jungle of East, South andSouthwest China.

Phytoconstituents reported:
Two new triterpenoidsaponins, named mussaendosides G and K, were isolated from aerial parts of Mussaendapubescens by normal and reverse phase chromatography. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures have been elucidated as heinsiagenin A 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)}-alpha-L -rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3 beta,19 alpha-dihydroxyl-olean-12-en-24, 28-dioic acid-24,28-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

Biological activities reported:
Mussaendoside F isolated from aerial part of M. pubescens was found to be a muscarinic antagonist (23). Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid lowered blood sugar levels in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice(24). Oleanolic and ursolic acids are known to possess significant anti-inflammatory activities. Both these acids are effective in preventing chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver disorders. Recently these compounds have been noted for their anti-tumour promotion effects(25).

It has been used in Chinese folk medicine as a diuretic, antichloristic and antipyretic agent. The wholeplant of Mussaendapubescens has been used against laryngopharyngitis,
·        Acute gastroenteritis
·        Dysentery and
·         
As a contraceptive agent 2

Mussaendaroxburghii
It is distributed in the Eastern and Central Nepal at an altitude of height 200-1200 m in moist shady places ofBhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

Uses: A paste of the root is applied to the tongue to treat boils (11).

Mussaendaincana
It isnative from India to Malaysia and is much smaller than the above mussaendas, growing to no more than3 ft tall. It has flat-topped flower clusters (corymbs), with bright yellow corollas and a single enlarged calyx lobethat is yellow to cream.

Uses: In the landscape it is most effective in mass plantings.14
·         Look for thecultivar ‘White Wings’.

Mussaendaphilippica
It is native to The Philippines, and is known commonly as virgin tree or, less often, tropical dogwood, and forms a shrub or small tree 9 to15 ft tall.  and cultivated for its showy habit, colourful scarlet, white or pink sepals and yellow   petals (34). It is a bushy shrub growing up to 2.00m and 3.00m for white and pink varieties respectively and both   varieties are similar in morphology and ecology, but differ in physiology (35). It is generally planted for its elegance as shrubbery borders or grown as a specimen or focal plant. It flowers   luxuriantly formost part of the year and has proved to be the most popular flowering shrub in the warm humid region (36). The medical uses of leaves, flowers and roots of Queen of the Philippines (Mussaendaphilippica) for various ailments have been reported in Ghana, Liberia, Sierra-Leone and China (37,38), but it is mainly used as ornamental plant.Ornamental plants are widely grown for their beauty in form of radiant and showyappearance.

Uses: The sepals of cultivars are active (19).
·         Sanshiside methyl ester posssess antiviral property (10) .
·         Non glycosidiciridoids like Mussaein are cytotoxic(06).

Mussaendaglabra
It is also found from India to Malaysia and at 2 ft is even shorter than M. incana.  It is commonly known as dwarf mussaenda. The tubular corolla is orange to red with an enlarged white calyx lobe(39).

Uses: It is used to best advantage massed in a border. 
·         This is the most cold tolerant of the cultivated musseandas.
·         It is sometimes treated as an annual in the Gulf Coast states.

Mussaenda ‘QueenSirkit’
It was developed by backcrossing the F1 hybrid between M. ‘Aurorae’andM. erythrophylla to M‘Aurorae’.  It is among the most spectacular of mussaendas, with all five calyx lobes enlarged up to 3½”, in shades of ivory to pale pink. These large flower clusters (panicles) are somewhat fragile; during heavy rain they can become heavy, causing  smaller branches to break(14).  They also are prone to break off the plant during high winds.

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