A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AFFECTING AMNESIA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MODEL

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Phyllanthus amarus: PA has shown to produce a dose-dependent significant improvement in memory scores of young and older mice in Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance. PA has also reversed successfully the amnesia induced by scopolamine by decreasing brain AChE activity. [36]

Pueraria thunbergiana: Daidzein isolated from P. thunbergiana inhibited scopolamine-induced amnesia in the Y-maze test by acting as a choline acetyltransferase activator for acetylcholine biosynthesis. [37]

Prunus amygdalus (almond): Pretreatment with P. amygdalusfor a 14 day dose-dependently has shown significantly reversed scopolamine-induced amnesia by a decrease in transfer latency in elevated plus maze and step down latency in the passive avoidance task by reducing brain ChE activity. It has been also shown that the PA exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property. [38]

Salvia miltiorrhiza: It has been able to significantly ameliorate the scopolamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance test. This activity was observed due to Tanshinone, a major diterpenoids found in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Tanshinone has significantly shown the anti-amnesic effect due to enhancement of cholinergic signaling in the mice brain. [39]

Scrophularia buergeriana: Scrophularia buergeriana has shown significantly enhance in cognitive activities against scopolamine induced amnesia in the Morris water maze test in mice. This activity was observed due to E-harpagoside and MCA-Hg, an iridoid glycosides isolated from SB. E-harpagoside or MCA-Hg significantly decreased TBARS level, which was accompanied by an increase in the activities or contents of glutathione reductase, SOD and reduced GSH. [41]

Soybean: Pretreatment with soybean for 60 days has shown to protect the animal significantly from developing memory impairment against scopolamine induced memory deficits. Soybean administration also resulted in diminished brain AChE activity, decrease in brain TBARS and the increase in GSH levels was observed, which indicated facilitation of the cholinergic transmission, reduced free radical generation and enhanced scavenging of free radicals. Thus, soybean appears to be a useful remedy for improving memory and for the management of cognitive deficits owing to its pro-estrogenic, antioxidant, procholinergic, and or neuroprotective properties. [40]

Teucrium polium: An ethanolic extract of T. populnea reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia through reduced brain cholinesterase activity. [42]

Thespesia populnea: Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of T. populnea (TPE) for 7 days has shown significantly reversed scopolamine-induced amnesia by reducing the central (brain) cholinesterase activity in mice. [43]

Vigna radiate: Aqueous and ethanolic extract of dried seeds of Vigna radiata linn has been shown to ameliorate the amnesic effect of Scopolamine induced memory deficit in mice using the Radial arm maze and Morris water maze models. [44]

Vitex Negundo: Pretreatment with aqueous extract of V. negundo has shown a significant decrease in the phenomenon of scopolamine-induced amnesia by increase in learning about memory through antioxidant effect and decreasing AChE activity. [45]

Zingiber officinale: Z. officinaleextract has been shown significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and also reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. Z.officinale has also significantly increased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase inhibition activity. [46]

Ziziphus mauritiana: The extracts of Z.mauritiana seeds impaired spatial recognition of rodents, the activity of which was greatly produced by the portion extracted with ethyl acetate. Spatial memory as measured by the Y-maze test is dependent on hippocampal learning and memory function and is related to the NMDA receptor/Ca2+ influx signaling pathway. It is possible that, compounds contained in the ethyl acetate portion of the extract may inhibit this hippocampal NMDA receptor/Ca2+ signaling pathway. Seeds from Z. Mauritania extracted with ethyl acetate not only impair the acquisition but also consolidation and retrieval of spatial recognition memory in animals in the Y- maze. [47]

CONCLUSION
From this study, it is clear that the medicinal plants play a vital role against amnesia and dementia. Various above-mentioned medicinal plants and plant extracts have significant antiamnesic andantidementic activity in the scopolamine induced amnesia model. Scopolamine is a


 

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