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REVIEW ON ‘HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA’

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, Bukke Nirmala3, Katipogu Sandhyarani4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of JNTUA-Otri,
3M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
This review gives full details about the Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This crude drug has a following medicinal uses antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic. Also gives information about how to cultivate and harvest, in which conditions if we cultivates can get a high yield.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2081

I. INTRODUCTION:
Roselle is native from India to Malaysia, where it is commonly cultivated, and must have been carried at an early date to Africa. It has been widely distributed in the Tropics and Subtropics of both hemispheres, and in many areas of the West Indies and Central America has become naturalized. "Roselle ... is grown in large quantities in Panama, especially by the West Indians.[1]

II. History:
The Flemish botanist, M. de L'Obel, observations of the plant in 1576, and the edibility of the leaves was recorded in Java in 1687. Seeds are said to have been brought to the New World by African slaves. Roselle was grown in Brazil in the 17th Century and in Jamaica in 1707.

The plant was being cultivated for food use in Guatemala before 1840. J.N. Rose, in 1899, saw large baskets of dried calyces in the markets of Guadalajara, Mexico. 1962, Sharaf referred to the cultivation of Roselle as a "recent" crop in Egypt, where interest is centered more on its pharmaceutical than its food potential

In 1971, it was reported that Roselle calyces, produced and dried in Senegal, particularly around Bombay, were being shipped to Europe (Germany, Switzerland, France and Italy) at the rate of 10 to 25 tons annually.

Hibiscus sabdariffaLinn.


III. Common names:

  • Telugu: Erragomgura, ettagomgura
  • Tamil: Simaikkasuru, sivappukkasure
  • Kannada: kempupundrike, plachakiri
  • Hindi: lalambari, patwa
  • Malayalam: polechi, puli-chera
  • Sanskrit: ambasthaki
  • Marathi: laal_ambaari, tambdi_ambadi
  • Bengali: chukkar

Synonyms:

  • Jamaica sorrel,
  • Red sorrel,
  • Roselle,
  • Indian sorrel
  • Guinea sorrel,
  • Sour- sour,

- Jelly okra,

- lemon bush,

- karkade,

- Florida cranberry [2]

IV. Habitat:
Hibiscus sabdariffa or sorrel as it is commonly called in Jamaica, is native from India to Malaysia, where it is commonly cultivated. It has been widely distributed in the Tropics and Subtropics of both hemispheres and has become naturalized in many areas of the West Indies and Central America. There are over one hundred cultivars or seed varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa, with the major commercial varieties being grown in China, Thailand, Mexico, Sudan, Senegal, Tanzania. [2]

V. Ecology:
Suitable for tropical climates with well-distributed rainfall of 1500–2000 mm yearly, from sea-level to about 600 m altitude. Tolerates a warmer and more humid climate than kenaf, but is more susceptible to damage from frost and fog. Plant exhibits marked photoperiodism, not flowering at shortening days of 13.5 hours, but flowering at 11 hours. In United States plants do not flower until short days of late fall or early winter. Since flowering is not necessary for fiber production, long light days for 3–4 months is the critical factor.

Roselle requires a permeable soil, a friable sandy loam with humus being preferable; however, it will adapt to a variety of soils. It is not shade tolerant and must be kept weed-free. It will tolerate floods, heavy winds or stagnant water.

Ranging from Warm Temperate Moist through Tropical Wet to Very Dry Forest Life Zones, Roselle is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 6.4 to 42.9 dm (mean of 213 cases = 17.14) annual temperature of 12.5 to 27.5°C (mean of 213 cases = 23.11) and pH of 4.5 to 8.0 (mean of 119 cases = 6.1). (Duke, 1978, 1979).[3]

VI. Cultivation and collection:

6.1. Planting:
Soil preparation should be deep, about 20 cm, and thorough. Seed, 11–22 kg/ha depending upon the soil, is drilled about 15 cm by 15 cm at beginning of rainy season, mid-April in India, planting to a depth of about 0.5 cm.  Weeding for first month is important. Fertilization practices vary widely. Roselle responds favourably to applications of nitrogen, and 45 kg/ha is a safe level in India, applied in the form of compost or mineral fertilizer in conjunction with a small quantity of phosphate. In Java green manure 80 kg N/ha, 36–54 kg P2O5/ha and 75–100 kg K2O/ha. Rotations are sometimes used, the Roselle, requiring several months to grow, making the land unavailable for other crops. The practice is recommended since the root-knot nematode, Hot-rodder radicicola, is a pest. A sequence of a legume green-manure crop, then roselle and then corn is suggested. For home gardens of roselle, seeds are sown directly in rows about May 15. After germination, seedlings are thinned to stand 1 m apart. For larger plantings, seeds are sown in protected seedbeds and the seedlings transplanted to 1.3–2.6 m apart in rows 2–3.3 m apart. Applications of stable manure or commercial fertilizers are beneficial. Plants are subject to injury by root-knot nematodes and should not be planted on land infested with these pests. [3]

6.2. Harvesting:
For the calyces of fruits, about 3 weeks after tile onset of flowering, the first fruits are ready for picking. The fruit consists of the large reddish calyces surrounding the small seed pods. Capsules are easily separated, but need not be removed before cooking. For fiber, from planting to harvest is about 3–4 months, 10 months in Indonesia. Fiber quality is best if harvested just at flowering time. Stems are cut off at ground level, tied in bundles and retted until the fiber is freed from the wood. Then it is washed and dried in the sun. A skilled worker can strip 36–45 kg dry clean fiber daily in this practice. Retting is by-passed if a decorticating machine is used. [6]

6.3. Yields and Economics:
Calyx production ranges from ca 1.5 kg (Calif.) to 2 kg (Puerto Rico) to 7.5 kg/plant in South Floridia. In Hawaii, roselle intercropped with yielded 16,000 kg/ha, 19,000 kg when planted alone. Dual purpose plantings can yield 17,000 kg of herbage in 3 cuttings and later 6,300kg of calyces (Morton, 1975). Average fiber production is 1,700 kg/ha with as much as 3,500 kg/ha reported (Malaya). The amount of fiber in the stalks is about 5%. In Indonesia land rent is for ten months at rate of 42,000 Rp./ha and 100 workers/ha/month are required. Field workers are paid 60 Rp/day (July 1971). The FOB export price to Brussels recently was 106 British pounds per long ton. Indonesians have no problems selling all the roselle gunny bags they can make.

6.4. Energy:
As a multiple-use species, roselle is often mentioned as an energy candidate, yielding fiber, beverage, edible foliage, and an oil seed. If it is grown for fiber, much biomass remains as residue. Crane (1949) calculates that the extracted fiber represents only 1.3–7.9% of the stalk material, suggesting residues at least 10 times more massive than the fiber. Crane generalizes that fiber yields run ca 1600 kg/ha with yields in West Africa closer to 650 kg/ha, 2100 kg/ha in Sri Lanka, 1500 in Java, and experimental yields of 1200 to 3400 kg/ha in Malaya. Residue yields (biomass) should be more than ten times higher.

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VII. Morphology or Botanical Description:
H sabdariffa var. sabdariffa is an annual, erect, bushy, herbaceous, sub shrub, 5-7ftin height with smooth or nearly smooth, cylindrical, typically red stems. The leaves are alternate, 7.5 - 12.5 cm long, green with reddish veins and long or short petioles. Flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils and are up to 12.5 cm wide, yellow or buff with arose or maroon eye and turn pink as they wither at the end of each day. The main edible part, the bright red calyx, surrounds the seed boll and consists of five large sepals with a collar or epicalyxes of 8 -12 bracteoles around the base. The seed boll is a velvety capsule; 1.25- 2.0 cm long and is five-valved, with each valve containing three to four kidney-sh3:ped, light brown seeds. The seeds are usually 3 - 5 mm long and minutely downy. The capsule, which is usually green when immature turns brown and splits open when mature and dry.

VIII. Chemical constituents:
Sorrel seeds contains
24.0% crude protein,

22.3% fat, 15.3% fiber,

23.8% N-free extract 7.0% ash,

0.3% Ca, 0.6% P, and 0.4% S

Component acids of the seed lipids were identified as
35.2% palmitic-acid,

2.0% palmitoleic acid,

3.4% stearic acid

34.0% oleic acid,

14.4% linoleic acid,

61.3% j3-sitosterol,

5.1% cholesterol, and

3.2% ergosterol. [7, 3]

Sorrel (dried-flowers minus-ovary) contains 13% of a mixture of citric and malic acid, two anthocyanins, gossipetin (hydroxyfiavone) and hibiscin, and 0.004-0.005% ascorbic acid.

Petals yield the flavonal glycoside hibiscritin, which yields a crystalline aglycone- hibiscetin (C1sH1OO9)'.

Flowers contain phytosterols.

Dried Flower contains about 15.3% hibiscic acid (C6H607)'

Root contains saponins and tartaric acid.

Calyces contain 6.7% proteins by fresh weight and 7.9% by dry weight. Aspartic acid is the most common amino acid.

Dried fruits also contain vitamin C and calcium oxalate; dry petals containflavonol glycoside hibiscitrin. [7, 3]

IX. Medicinal use:
Reported to be antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, and tonic, sorrel is a folk remedy for abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and strangury. The drink made by placing, the calyx in water, is said to be a folk remedy for cancer.[5, 6]

Leaves: diuretic (stimulating the passing of urine); a hypertensive (to lower the blood pressure) and also to stimulate the production of bile by the liver. Applied to boils and ulcers.Emollient.[5, 6]

Flowers : diuretic and choleretic effects, decreasing the viscosity of the blood, reducing pleod'" pressure and stimulating intestinal peristalsis. [5]

Ripe calyces:diuretic and ant scorbutic; and the succulent calyx, boiled in water,

Fruits :anti scorbutic

Seed: as diuretic, laxative, and tonic

Bitter Root: as an appetitive and tonic

Plant extract: decreased the rate of absorption of alcohol, lessening the intensity of alcohol effects in chickens.[5, 6]

In East Africa, the calyx infusion, called “Sudan tea”, is taken to relieve coughs. Roselle juice, with salt, pepper, asafetida and molasses, is taken as a remedy for biliousness.
Hibiscus tea contains an enzyme inhibitor which blocks the production of amylase. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down complex sugars and starches. Drinking a cup of hibiscus tea after meals will reduce the absorption of dietary carbohydrates and will assist in weight loss.

  • Hibiscus tea is rich in vitamin C and makes a wonderful herbal remedy to fight off colds and infections by strengthening the immune system.
  • Other benefits of hibiscus tea include preventing bladder infections and constipation if taken regularly. [6]

Economic importance:

Food additives:flavouring   

Human food:beverage base   

Human food:vegetable   

Materials:fiber

Medicines: folklore  

Other plants with Anti-hyper lipidemic activity:
- Sapindusemarginatus
- Premnacorymbosa
- Annonamuricata
- Malasdomestica
- Sphaeranthusindicus
- Gymenmasylvestre
- Legenariasiceraria
- Bauhinia variegeta
- Momordicacymbalaria
- Salvodora oleo ides [5]

Growing Roselle

* Plant roselle in a full sun location. Start from seeds planted where they are to grow in Zones 8-11. In colder areas, start seeds indoors and transplant outside after the danger of frost is past. Place transplants at least three feet apart, or thin seedlings to that distance so that plants have plenty of room to grow. New plants are also easily started from cuttings.

* Roselle is not particular about soil pH, but it requires a permeable soil. Sandy soil amended with humus is preferred; however, it adapts to a variety of soils. It appreciates frequent watering and is even tolerant of floods and stagnant water. Plant them anywhere an attractive shrub is needed during the summer. Scatter them in a mixed border, or plant in rows to make a dense hedge by midsummer. They also perform well in large containers.

* Since it is susceptible to root knot nematodes, roselle should not be planted in the same place every year. A good mulch will help to control the nematode population, conserve water and inhibit weeds.[2]

X. CONCLUSION:
It has a following medicinal properties antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic, sorrel is a folk remedy for abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and strangury. The drink made by placing, the calyx in water, is said to be a folk remedy for cancer.

So in future it will be very useful for treating the above disease if used in correct formulation.

XI.REFERENCES:
1. Ali, B.H., Al, W.N., Blunden, G., 2005. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother.Res. 19,369–375.
2. Kokate C.K; Purohit A.P and Gokhale S.B (2004).Practical Pharmacognasy; 2nd ed. VallabhPrakashan, Delhi.
3. Ram RL Preliminary phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants of South Chotanagpur used against dysentery. Advances in Plant Sciences 2001; 14, 525-30.
4. Okonkwo, Tochukwu Josiah Nnaemeka (2010). Hibiscus sabdariffaanthocyanidins: A potential two-colour end-point indicator in acid-base and complexometric titrations. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Vol. 4(3) 2010.
5. Chen CC, Hsu JD, Wang SF, Chrang HC, Yang MY, Kao ES, Ho YO, Wang CJ (2003). Hibscussabdariffaextracinhibit the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51(18): 5472-5477.
6. Calixto JB, Santos ARS, Cechinel FV, Yunes RA (1998). A review of the plants of genus Phyllanthus: Their Chemistry, Pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Res Med Rev 4:225-258.
7. Rao, U.P., Brahman, M., Saxena, H.O. Phytochemical surrey of Marurbhanj, Ganjam and PuriDistt. (Orissa) for tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Ind Drugs, 1984; 22 (107):503-507.

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