REVIEW ON ‘HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA’

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, Bukke Nirmala3, Katipogu Sandhyarani4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of JNTUA-Otri,
3M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
This review gives full details about the Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This crude drug has a following medicinal uses antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic. Also gives information about how to cultivate and harvest, in which conditions if we cultivates can get a high yield.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2081

I. INTRODUCTION:
Roselle is native from India to Malaysia, where it is commonly cultivated, and must have been carried at an early date to Africa. It has been widely distributed in the Tropics and Subtropics of both hemispheres, and in many areas of the West Indies and Central America has become naturalized. "Roselle ... is grown in large quantities in Panama, especially by the West Indians.[1]

II. History:
The Flemish botanist, M. de L'Obel, observations of the plant in 1576, and the edibility of the leaves was recorded in Java in 1687. Seeds are said to have been brought to the New World by African slaves. Roselle was grown in Brazil in the 17th Century and in Jamaica in 1707.

The plant was being cultivated for food use in Guatemala before 1840. J.N. Rose, in 1899, saw large baskets of dried calyces in the markets of Guadalajara, Mexico. 1962, Sharaf referred to the cultivation of Roselle as a "recent" crop in Egypt, where interest is centered more on its pharmaceutical than its food potential

In 1971, it was reported that Roselle calyces, produced and dried in Senegal, particularly around Bombay, were being shipped to Europe (Germany, Switzerland, France and Italy) at the rate of 10 to 25 tons annually.

Hibiscus sabdariffaLinn.


III. Common names:

  • Telugu: Erragomgura, ettagomgura
  • Tamil: Simaikkasuru, sivappukkasure
  • Kannada: kempupundrike, plachakiri
  • Hindi: lalambari, patwa
  • Malayalam: polechi, puli-chera
  • Sanskrit: ambasthaki
  • Marathi: laal_ambaari, tambdi_ambadi
  • Bengali: chukkar

Synonyms:

  • Jamaica sorrel,
  • Red sorrel,
  • Roselle,
  • Indian sorrel
  • Guinea sorrel,
  • Sour- sour,

- Jelly okra,

- lemon bush,

- karkade,

- Florida cranberry [2]

IV. Habitat:
Hibiscus sabdariffa or sorrel as it is commonly called in Jamaica, is native from India to Malaysia, where it is commonly cultivated. It has been widely distributed in the Tropics and Subtropics of both hemispheres and has become naturalized in many areas of the West Indies and Central America. There are over one hundred cultivars or seed varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa, with the major commercial varieties being grown in China, Thailand, Mexico, Sudan, Senegal, Tanzania. [2]

V. Ecology:
Suitable for tropical climates with well-distributed rainfall of 1500–2000 mm yearly, from sea-level to about 600 m altitude. Tolerates a warmer and more humid climate than kenaf, but is more susceptible to damage from frost and fog. Plant exhibits marked photoperiodism, not flowering at shortening days of 13.5 hours, but flowering at 11 hours. In United States plants do not flower until short days of late fall or early winter. Since flowering is not necessary for fiber production, long light days for 3–4 months is the critical factor.

Roselle requires a permeable soil, a friable sandy loam with humus being preferable; however, it will adapt to a variety of soils. It is not shade tolerant and must be kept weed-free. It will tolerate floods, heavy winds or stagnant water.

Ranging from Warm Temperate Moist through Tropical Wet to Very Dry Forest Life Zones, Roselle is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 6.4 to 42.9 dm (mean of 213 cases = 17.14) annual temperature of 12.5 to 27.5°C (mean of 213 cases = 23.11) and pH of 4.5 to 8.0 (mean of 119 cases = 6.1). (Duke, 1978, 1979).[3]

VI. Cultivation and collection:

6.1. Planting:
Soil preparation should be deep, about 20 cm, and thorough. Seed, 11–22 kg/ha depending upon the soil, is drilled about 15 cm by 15 cm at beginning of rainy season, mid-April in India, planting to a depth of about 0.5 cm.  Weeding for first month is important. Fertilization practices vary widely. Roselle responds favourably to applications of nitrogen, and 45 kg/ha is a safe level in India, applied in the form of compost or mineral fertilizer in conjunction with a small quantity of phosphate. In Java green manure 80 kg N/ha, 36–54 kg P2O5/ha and 75–100 kg K2O/ha. Rotations are sometimes used, the Roselle, requiring several months to grow, making the land unavailable for other crops. The practice is recommended since the root-knot nematode, Hot-rodder radicicola, is a pest. A sequence of a legume green-manure crop, then roselle and then corn is suggested. For home gardens of roselle, seeds are sown directly in rows about May 15. After germination, seedlings are thinned to stand 1 m apart. For larger plantings, seeds are sown in protected seedbeds and the seedlings transplanted to 1.3–2.6 m apart in rows 2–3.3 m apart. Applications of stable manure or commercial fertilizers are beneficial. Plants are subject to injury by root-knot nematodes and should not be planted on land infested with these pests. [3]

6.2. Harvesting:
For the calyces of fruits, about 3 weeks after tile onset of flowering, the first fruits are ready for picking. The fruit consists of the large reddish calyces surrounding the small seed pods. Capsules are easily separated, but need not be removed before cooking. For fiber, from planting to harvest is about 3–4 months, 10 months in Indonesia. Fiber quality is best if harvested just at flowering time. Stems are cut off at ground level, tied in bundles and retted until the fiber is freed from the wood. Then it is washed and dried in the sun. A skilled worker can strip 36–45 kg dry clean fiber daily in this practice. Retting is by-passed if a decorticating machine is used. [6]

6.3. Yields and Economics:
Calyx production ranges from ca 1.5 kg (Calif.) to 2 kg (Puerto Rico) to 7.5 kg/plant in South Floridia. In Hawaii, roselle intercropped with yielded 16,000 kg/ha, 19,000 kg when planted alone. Dual purpose plantings can yield 17,000 kg of herbage in 3 cuttings and later 6,300kg of calyces (Morton, 1975). Average fiber production is 1,700 kg/ha with as much as 3,500 kg/ha reported (Malaya). The amount of fiber in the stalks is about 5%. In Indonesia land rent is for ten months at rate of 42,000 Rp./ha and 100 workers/ha/month are required. Field workers are paid 60 Rp/day (July 1971). The FOB export price to Brussels recently was 106 British pounds per long ton. Indonesians have no problems selling all the roselle gunny bags they can make.

6.4. Energy:
As a multiple-use species, roselle is often mentioned as an energy candidate, yielding fiber, beverage, edible foliage, and an oil seed. If it is grown for fiber, much biomass remains as residue. Crane (1949) calculates that the extracted fiber represents only 1.3–7.9% of the stalk material, suggesting residues at least 10 times more massive than the fiber. Crane generalizes that fiber yields run ca 1600 kg/ha with yields in West Africa closer to 650 kg/ha, 2100 kg/ha in Sri Lanka, 1500 in Java, and experimental yields of 1200 to 3400 kg/ha in Malaya. Residue yields (biomass) should be more than ten times higher.

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