A REVIEW : APPROACH IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
FORMULATION OF STANDARD DENTAL INSERTS20
The standard dental inserts were formulated using drug and synthetic polymer by employing solvent casting technique.20
EVALUATIONS OF FORMULATIONS21
Periodontal bio-dental inserts were evaluated for physical characteristics as follows:
• Thickness uniformity of the bio-dental inserts: Thickness of the bio-dental inserts was measured using digital screw gauge (Mitutoyo) at different areas of the films and the average was calculated and reported21.
• Uniformity of weight of the bio-dental inserts: Bio-dental inserts (size of 7x2 mm2) was taken from different areas of film. The weight of each bio-dental insert was taken and the weight variation of 5 bio-dental inserts were calculated and reported21.
• Surface pH: Periodontal bio-dental inserts were left to swell for 1 hour on the surface of the agar plate, prepared by dissolving 2%(w/v) agar in warmed double distilled water with constant stirring and poured into the petridish to solidify at room temperature. The surface pH was measured by means of pH paper placed on the surface of the swollen film. The mean of three readings was recorded21
• Swelling index (% S) :Swelling index of the drug loaded bio-dental inserts was determined by placing the film(area 7*2mm2) in the petridish containing about 10 .0 ml of phosphate buffer 7.6 ,before placing the film in the petridish its initial weight was calculated and increase in weight due to swelling was determined by weighing the bio-dental inserts at the time interval of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11, and 12 hours.
The Percentage of swelling was determined by using the following formula
% S = Xt – X0/ X0 X 100
Where, % S - swelling percentage,
Xt - the weight of swollen dental inserts after time t,
X0 -weight of film at zero time zero.
• Folding endurance: The folding endurance of the dental inserts was determined by repeatedly folding the inserts at the same place until it broken, which is considered satisfactory to reveal good insert properties. The number of times dental inserts could be folded at the same place without breaking gave the value of folding endurance. This test was done on all the bio-dental inserts for three times, and the results were compiled and reported.
• Drug content uniformity: Dental inserts (size of 7x2 mm2) were taken from different areas of the film and placed into a 10 ml volumetric flask, in to which 5.0 ml of methanol was added and kept aside till the film is completely dissolved. Withdraw 1 ml of solution and diluted to 10 ml with pH 7.6 phosphate buffer. The absorbance of the solution was measured at 290.5 nm. The polymeric solution without drug served as blank.22
• Tensile strength of the dental inserts: Tensile strength of the dental inserts was determined by universal strength testing apparatus. It consists of the glass plate which is fixed on lower base of apparatus, a pully through which a strings is attached, and a weight holder box which is connected with the strings. The test film of specific size (7 × 2 mm2) was fixed between glass plates and strings and weights are applied until the bio-dental inserts breaks. The tensile strength of bio-dental inserts were directly measured from weight in the weight box, and reported23.
• In-vitro drug release: Dental inserts were subjected to in-vitro release by using fabricated static dissolution method reported in the literature was adopted. Dental inserts of known weight and dimensions (size of 7×2 mm2) were placed separately into small vials containing 5.0 ml of pH 7.6 phosphate buffer. The vials were closed with closer and kept at 37°C for 5days. The buffer was drained off and replaced with fresh 1 ml of pH 7.6 in a time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. After that the absorbance of samples were determined by u.v spectroscopy at λmax 24 .
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
All the dental inserts were investigated for changes in the appearance, drug content and in vitro drug release. In this research work, a novel effort was made to design a dental insert loaded with the drug for the treatment of the disease periodontitis. On the basis of thorough and regular study of review of literature, solvent casting method was employed to prepare the dental insert. All the formulated dental inserts were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content, folding endurance, thickness, percentage moisture loss, swelling index, tensile strength and in vitro drug release study.
Hence it can be concluded that dental inserts can be prepared using standard polymers and other co processing agents in order to achieve controlled drug release in a prolonged manner for treatment of periodontitis.
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