A REVIEW : APPROACH IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Pharma Admission

Pharma courses

pharma admission

pharma courses

 

FORMULATION OF STANDARD DENTAL INSERTS20
The standard dental inserts were formulated using drug and synthetic polymer by employing solvent casting technique.20

EVALUATIONS OF FORMULATIONS21
Periodontal bio-dental inserts were evaluated for physical characteristics as follows:

Thickness uniformity of the bio-dental inserts: Thickness of the bio-dental inserts was measured using digital screw gauge (Mitutoyo) at different areas of the films and the average was calculated and reported21.

• Uniformity of weight of the bio-dental inserts: Bio-dental inserts (size of 7x2 mm2) was taken from different areas of film. The weight of each bio-dental insert was taken and the weight variation of 5 bio-dental inserts were calculated and reported21.

Surface pH: Periodontal bio-dental inserts were left to swell for 1 hour on the surface of the agar plate, prepared by dissolving 2%(w/v) agar in warmed double distilled water with constant stirring and poured into the petridish to solidify at room temperature. The surface pH was measured by means of pH paper placed on the surface of the swollen film. The mean of three readings was recorded21

Swelling index (% S) :Swelling index of the drug loaded bio-dental inserts was determined by placing the film(area 7*2mm2) in the petridish containing about 10 .0 ml of phosphate buffer 7.6 ,before placing the film in the petridish its initial weight was calculated and increase in weight due to swelling was determined by weighing the bio-dental inserts at the time interval of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11, and 12 hours.

The Percentage of swelling was determined by using the following formula

% S =    Xt – X0/ X0    X 100

Where, % S - swelling percentage,
Xt - the weight of swollen dental inserts after time t,
X0 -weight of film at zero time zero.

Folding endurance:  The folding endurance of the dental inserts was determined by repeatedly folding the inserts at the same place until it broken, which is considered satisfactory to reveal good insert properties. The number of times dental inserts could be folded at the same place without breaking gave the value of folding endurance. This test was done on all the bio-dental inserts for three times, and the results were compiled and reported.

Drug content uniformity: Dental inserts (size of 7x2 mm2) were taken from different areas of the film and placed into a 10 ml volumetric flask, in to which 5.0 ml of methanol was added and kept aside till the film is completely dissolved. Withdraw 1 ml of solution and diluted to 10 ml with pH 7.6 phosphate buffer. The absorbance of the solution was measured at 290.5 nm. The polymeric solution without drug served as blank.22

Tensile strength of the dental inserts: Tensile strength of the dental inserts was determined by universal strength testing apparatus. It consists of the glass plate which is fixed on lower base of apparatus, a pully through which a strings is attached, and a weight holder box which is connected with the strings. The test film of specific size (7 × 2 mm2) was fixed between glass plates and strings and weights are applied until the bio-dental inserts breaks. The tensile strength of bio-dental inserts were directly measured from weight in the weight box, and reported23.

In-vitro drug release: Dental inserts were subjected to in-vitro release by using fabricated static dissolution method reported in the literature was adopted. Dental inserts of known weight and dimensions (size of 7×2 mm2) were placed separately into small vials containing 5.0 ml of pH 7.6 phosphate buffer. The vials were closed with closer and kept at 37°C for 5days. The buffer was drained off and replaced with fresh 1 ml of pH 7.6 in a time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. After that the absorbance of samples were determined by u.v spectroscopy at  λmax 24 .

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
All the dental inserts were investigated for changes in the appearance, drug content and in vitro drug release. In this research work, a novel effort was made to design a dental insert loaded with the drug for the treatment of the disease periodontitis. On the basis of thorough and regular study of review of literature, solvent casting method was employed to prepare the dental insert. All the formulated dental inserts were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content, folding endurance, thickness, percentage moisture loss, swelling index, tensile strength and in vitro drug release study.
Hence it can be concluded that dental inserts can be prepared using standard polymers and other co processing agents in order to achieve controlled drug release in a prolonged manner for treatment of periodontitis.

REFERENCES
1. Pragati, S.,Ashok, S., Kuldeep, S. International Journal of Drug Delivery. Recent advances in periodontal drug delivery systems, 2011; 3(1):114.
2. Ahmed, M.G.,Harish, N.M., Charyulu, R.N.,Prabhu, P.Formulation of chitosan-based ciprofloxacin and diclofenac film for periodontitis therapy. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2009;8(1):33-41.
3. Sunil A, Venkatesh M, Udupa N. Controlled-drug delivery systems forperiodontitis. The Pharm Review 2004; Jul-Aug; 61-82.
4. Slots, Rams TE. Antibiotics in periodontal therapy:advantages and disadvantages.J Clin periodontal,1990;17:479-93.
5. Kornman K. Controlled?release local delivery antimicrobials in periodontics prospects for the future. J periodontal 1993;64:782?91.
6. Goodson,J.M.,Haffajee.A.,and Socransky.S.S.Periodontol therapy by local delivery of tetracycline. J. Clin. Periodontal.1979; 6: 83-92.
7. David S. Jones, A. David Woolfson, Andrew F. Brown, Mucoadhesive, syringeable drug    delivery systems for controlled application of metronidazole to the periodontal pocket: In vitrorelease kinetics, syringeability, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. Journal of Controlled Release 49 (1997) ;71–79.
8. Hugoson A. Norderyd O. Slotte C. Thorstensson H. Distribution of periodontal diseasein a Swedish adult population 1973, 1983 and 1993.J Clin Periodontol 1998;25:542-548.
9. Page RC. The pathobiology of periodontal diseases may affect systemic diseases:inversion of a paradigm.Ann Periodontol1998;3:108-120.
10. Axelsson P. Albander JM. Rams TE. Prevention and control of periodontal diseases indeveloping and industrialized nations.Periodontol 2000 2002;29:235-246.
11. Darveau RP. Tanner A. Page RC. The microbial challenge in periodontitis.Periodontol20001997;14:12-32.
12. Ximenez-Fyvie LA. Haffajee AD. Socransky SS. Comparison of the microbiota of supra and subgingival plaque in health and periodontitis.J Clin Periodontol 2000; 27:648-657.
13.    Socransky SS. Haffajee AD. Periodontal microbial ecology.Periodontol2000 2005;38:135-187.
14.    Marsh PD. Microbial ecology of dental plaque and its significance in health and disease.Adv Dent Res1994;8:263-271.
15.    Armitage GC. Jeffcoat MK. Chadwick DE. Taggart EJ Jr. Numabe Y. Landis JR. Weaver SL. Sharp TJ. Longitudinal evaluation of elastase as a marker for the progression of periodontitis. J. Periodontol 1994;65:120-128.
16.    Jain,N.,Jain,K.Gaurav.,Javed,S.,Iqbal,Z.,A Reviews:Recent advances for the treatment of periodontitis Drug discovery today21/22.November2008.
17. dentalgentlecare.com/gum_disease.htm
18. Colin B.W, Edward E.P. The Periodontal Disease Classification System of the American Academy of Periodontology. J Can Dent Assoc 2000; 66:594?7.
19. Prabhushankar,G.L.,Gopalkrishna,B.,Manjunatha,K.M.,and Girisha, C.H., Formulation and evaluation of levofloxacin dental films for periodontitis;International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences Vol 2, Issue 1,2010.
20. Khanna R, Agrawal SP, Ahuja A. Preparation and evaluation of buccal films of clotrimazole for oral Candida infections. Indian J Pharm Sci 1997; 59:299?305.
21.  Mastiholimath VS, Dandagi PM, Gadad AP, Patil MB, Manvi FV and Chandur VK. Formulation and evaluation of ornidazole dental implants for periodontitis. Indian J Pharm sci 2006; 68(1): 68?71.
22. Barat,R.,Srinatha,A.,Jayanta.Pandit,K.,Chitosan inserts for periodontitis:Influence of drug loading,plasticizers and cross linking on in-vitro metronidazole release.  ActaPharm.57,2007:469-477.
23.    Semalty, A.,Semalty, M.,Kumar,G., and Juyal,V.Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Glipizide.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology July - September 2008;Volume 1- Issue 2 .
24.Shah.charmi,P.,Patel.Deval.M.,Dhami.Paras.D. In-vitro screening of antibacterial activity of cow urine against pathogenic human strains.International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research.2011;Vol 3, Issue 2.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


 

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES