REVIEW ON AEGLE MARMELOS (L) CORR: MEDICINAL VALUES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, FORMULATIONS, TOXICITY STUDIES

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About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu
Graduate Student
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy, Palluru,
Gudipala Mandal Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Over the last few years, rehears have aimed at identifying and validating plant derived substances for the treatment of various diseases. Similarly it has been already proved that various parts of plants such as Leafs, fruits, seeds etc. provide health and nutrition promoting compounds in human diet. The Bael (Aegle Marmelos) (L) Corr) is another Indian plant, which has enormous traditional uses against various diseases. The present review aims to compile medicinal values of Aegle Marmelos generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools.
It is called 'Shivadurme', the tree of Shiva, and is one of the sacred trees of the Hindus. Leaves are offered in prayers to Shiva and Parvathi since ancient times.


Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1564

I.INTRODUCTION:
Indian Medicinal plants are considered a vast source of several pharmacologically active principles and compounds, which are commonly used in home remedies against multiple ailments.

Bael (Aegle marmelos (L) Corr.) is another Indian medicinal plant, which has enormous traditional values against various diseases and many bioactive compounds have been isolated from this plant.

History:
It is called 'Shivadurme', the tree of Shiva, and is one of the sacred trees of the Hindus. Leaves are offered in prayers to Shiva and Parvathi since ancient times. It has its own place in indigenous systems of medicine. The fruit is the subject of several solar-phallic myths. Hindu physicians regard the unripe or half-ripe fruit as astringent, digestive and stomachic and prescribe it to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The thick sherbet of the ripe fruit has a reputation among Europeans as an agreeable laxative. It is also given for piles; and as a remedy for diarrhea. The root bark is used as a remedy in hypochondrias, melancholia and palpitation of the heart. Fresh leaf juice used as a laxative and febrifuge is used in asthmatic complaints and jaundice. The Chinese used the leaves and young fruits to adulterate Opium. In Bengal it is used for dysentery. In Concur, small and unripe fruits are used for piles. The juice of bark is a remedy for poverty of seminal fluid.

Botanical name: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.
Synonym: Crataeva marmelos Linn.
Genus: Aegle
Species: marmelos
Family: Rutaceae


Vernacular Names (Nadkami, 1978):
English: Bengal quince, Beal fruit, Golden apple, Holy fruit, Indian quince, Stone apple.
Tamil: Aluvigam, Iyalbudi, Kuvilam, Mavilangai, Vilwam, Villuvam.
Telugu: Bilvamu, Maluramu, Maredu, Sailushamu, Sandiliyamu, Sriphalamu.
Hindi: Bael, Bili, Sirphal, and Bela,
Sanskrit: Adhararutha, Asholam, Atimangaliya, Bilva, Durarutha, Gandhaptra, Hridyagandha, Kantak adhya, Kapitana, Sriphala, Lakshmiphala, Mahakapitthakya.
Bengal: Bael, Bel,
Gujarat: Billi,
Kannada: Bela, Bilva
Malayalam: Koovalam, Vilwam
Orissa: Belo

Threat status:
Vulnerable (AIC) – K.A & T.N
Not evaluated – K.L

Habit: Tree

Habitat: From coastal plains to most deciduous forests.

Altitude: From Sea level to 1200m.

II. PLANT DESCRIPTION:

Bark: Grey outside, rough, peeling off irregularly to small flakes.

Blaze:Yellow

Wood:  Hard, dull white, branch lets often drooping with straight, start, sharp, solitary of period about 4cm long thorns.

Leaves:Alternative

Spine: Spine is present in the axils of leaves. They are either single, double or absent in some variants. If a pair of spine is present the arms are either equal or unequal. Spine length 2-3cm.

Leaflets:  3(rarely 5), egg shaped or elliptic or oblong. Lanceolate, thin pale green on both surfaces, hairless, base wedge shaped or rounded, apex tapering into a blunt tip, margin toothed with minute rounded teeth, terminal leaflets larger about 13×6.5cm, lateral leaflets smaller about 7×4cm, leaf stalks about 6cm long.

Flowers: Bisexual, 3-6 in axillary racemes, about 1.5cm long greenish white fragrant.

Berries: Ovoid to sub-globes, 5 to 10×4-8cm, Yellow, when nature with woody rind and short neck.

Seeds:Many oblong, flat about 1cm long, embedded in thick orange or flesh colored mucilaginous sweet pulp.

Phrenology:
Leaf fall:   January
New foliage: February onwards

Flowering:  March to April

Fruiting:   September to December

Stem:  Transverse section of the stem reveals the presence of 1) Well developed periderm consisting of cork, phellogen and phelloderm, 2) Distinct patches of stone cells above the phloem region, 3) Several layers of cambium, 4) Conspicuous xylem with large vessels and uniseriate medullary rays and 5) Parenchymatous pith.

Stem bark:   Grey in color more warty and less number of cracks and fissures. Thickness 4-8mm; cork zone showing 5-8 stratification. Stone cells present in more number of groups in the phelloderm and also present in groups in the phloem fibers present in groups arranged in concentric rings (Anonymous, 1976).

Roots:
The T.S. of root shows the presence of
1. Outer zone of cork which gets peeled off consequent on secondary growth.
2. This is followed by phellogen and secondary cortex whose cells contain abundance of starch grains.
3. Interior to the cortex is the characteristic concentric patches of sclerenchyma.
4. Phloem is concentrically arranged; phloem cells alternating with narrow strip of sclerenchyma.
5. Medullary rays, distinct ring of cambium, wood consisting of large vessels, tracheids and fibers, uniseriate and biseriate medullary rays filled with starch grains, and pent arch primary xylem are other features (Krishnan Nambiar et al., 2000).

Seed Germination:
Among the various treatment given to seed of Bael (Aegle marmelos), water  soaking result in highest percentage of germination (80%) which was closely followed by concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 min. (76%) and least percent of germination occurred with concentrated sulfuric acid (10min) + thiourea 1 percent (20%). Although water soaking resulted in highest percentage of germination, it took longer time for initiation and completion of germination as compared to concentrated sulfuric acid, which resulted in quicker germination (Nayak and Sen, 1999).

Floral Vasculature:
Floral vasculature of A.marmelos was worked out by Krishnan (Nambiar et al., 2000).

Calyx lobe:
Each lobe is supplied by a single vascular strand, which gets divided into three branches, from the base itself. These branches in-turn go on branching and re-branching irregularly and from a net work.

Petal:
Each petal is supplied with five vascular strands of these, the middle one gets branched into two, near about the centre of the petal. The two laterals on either sides of the median, branch into three from the base itself. Each branch again gets abruptly branched. The two peripheral ones get simply branched into four from base itself giving rise to laterals.

Stamen:
Each stamen is supplied with a single vascular strand, which traverse through the connective and reaches up to the rip without any branching.

Gynoecium:
Eleven bundles enter into the ovary. Each one branches into two. Peripheral traverse through the ovary wall and the central one form the ventral bundle and supplies the ovules. So eleven peripheral bundles and eleven central bundles which supply the ovules are seen in cross section of the ovary. The two branches of each bundle again join at the top of the ovary and enter into the stigma. Thus eleven bundles are seen in the stigma. Thus eleven bundles are seen in the stigma. Further each bundle gets feebly branched.

Gums and Resins:
One of the sources of gum in Asia is Asiatic tropic gum from Aegle marmelos (Bengal quince). These are distinct plant products insoluble inwater but dissolve in alcohol, ether, carbondi-sulfide and certain othersolvents with heat they first soften and then melt to a more or less clear,sticky fluid. They burn with a smoky flame and are resistant to mostreagents and to decay. Resin is generally secreted in plant tissue in speciallayer of secretary cells which secret the resin into the cavity through a thincuticular skin (Sambamurty and Subramanyam, 1989).

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