Pharmacology Articles

Aphrodisiac Activity of Bombax Ceiba Linn. Extract in Male Mice

About Author: 1) Pankaj H. Chaudhary, M.Pharm
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy,
Kathora Naka, Amravati – 444604, Maharashtra, INDIA.
2) Somshekhar S. Khadabadi*. M.Pharm., PhD.
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy,
Kathora Naka, Amravati – 444604, Maharashtra, INDIA.

Abstract
In the present study, the aphrodisiac activity of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae) root extract was investigated. The extract (400 mg/kg body wt./day) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p < 0.05). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (p < 0.05). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male mice.

Pharmacological Investigation of the Plant Prunus Amygdalus (Batsch) for its Anti-ulcer

About Author: Devendra Kumar1*, Durga Prasad Dash1, Shushank Dixit2, Pragya Seth3
Department of Pharmaceutical technology,
1Sri Satya Sai collage of Pharmacy (Sehore),
2NH-58, Bagpath road bypass, MIET, Meerut,
3Laxmi Narayan College of Pharmacy, Bhopal

Abstract
This study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of almond nuts of Prunus amygdalus (batsch.) on pylorus ligation gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Treatment with Prunus amygdalus extract of (200 mg/Kg bodyweight, 400 mg /Kg body weight) and ranitidine (50 mg/ Kg body weight) for 1 hr to the Ethanol and  rats Pylorus ligation were given and absorb the acid parameters. The present study provides a strong evidence of antiulcer activity of Prunus amygdalus extract against gastric lesions. The antiulcer activity is recognized by a reduction in acid-secretary parameters (i.e. total and free acid), gastric volume and ulcer score suggesting that acid inhibition accelerates ulcer healing, thereby strengthening of mucosal barrier. Administration of Prunus amygdalus (200 mg/kg & 400mg/kg p.o.) increased CAT, and GSH levels as compared to the negative control group, which suggests its efficacy in preventing free radical-induced damage. However, significant increase was observed all doses but in 400mg/kg were better results. In this present study was showed that there was present a significant protection for Hexosamine in all treated groups in compare to negative control group. The LPO results in showed that there was significance level difference present in negative control group and all other group that indicated that lipid peroxides enzyme was higher in vehicle treated group. Ulcer score is the counting of spots and severity of damage in gastric part by any moiety such as ethanol. Single drug treatment (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg of P.A.E.) was effective up to a significant level (P<0.05) in compare to negative control group. Volume of gastric juice indicate the secretions of gastric fluid and it is higher in negative control group and all drug treated group was effective in relation to negative control group (P <0.05).

Memory Enhancing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Selaginella Bryopteris in Swiss Albino Mice

About Author: Neeraj Kumar Garg*1, Pankaj Khatri1, Sangeeta Gupta2, N. Ganesh2
1. School of pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur (Raj.)
2. Incharge, Department of research, jawahar lal Nehru cancer Hospital and Research centre, Idgah hills Bhopal 462001 (M.P.)

Abstract
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of Selaginella bryopteris (popularly known as sanjeevani, Family: Selaginellaceae) on learning and memory. Two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) of methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris were administered for 7 successive days in separate group of animals. The dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. of the methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris significantly improved learning and memory of mice. Antioxidant property of Selaginella bryopteris may be contributing favourably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation of Selaginella bryopteris have shown promising memory enhancing agent in the entire laboratory models employed.

Peptic Ulcer Disease and its Screening

About Author: Ram Ashwin

Peptic Ulcer Disease and its  screening
Condition characterized by Erosion of GI mucosa resulting from digestive action of HCl and pepsin or A peptic ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, an area called the duodenum.
• Ulcer development
• Lower esophagus(esophageal ulcer)
• Stomach(gastric ulcer)
• Duodenum(duodenal ulcer)

A Review on Piperacillin - Tazobactam in Febrile Neutropenia

About Author: Uday Venkat Mateti1*, Srikala Patha2
1. Department of Pharmacy Practice  & Pharm.D, St Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rohini Hospital, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India
2. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bharat Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), KIMS Hospital, JNTU, Hyderabad, India

Abstract
The mortality rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) has diminished steadily but remains significant. Overall mortality rates are 5% in patients with solid tumors (1% in low-risk patients) and as high as 11% in some hematological malignancies. Piperacillin/Tazobactam is a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against most Gram-positive, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. Piperacillin/Tazobactam is effective and well tolerated in patients with febrile neutropenia.  Guidelines for the Management of Febrile Neutropenia in Oncology Patients and the 2010 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Prevention and treatment  for febrile neutropenia recommends as initial treatment in patients with FN who are at high risk of serious infections. In comparative clinical trials against various other antibacterial regimens. Piperacillin/Tazobactam has shown higher clinical success rates, particularly in the treatment of patients with febrile neutropenia. Piperacillin/Tazobactam has shown clinical as well as the economic advantages over other antibacterial regimens in the treatment of febrile episodes in patients with neutropenia. It is likely to reduce overall treatment costs of moderate to severe febrile neutropenia by increasing initial treatment success thereby reducing the length of hospital stay and the use of additional antibacterials. Present data regarding clinical efficacy, safety and costs would support the use of Piperacillin/Tazobactam as an empirical first-line option in moderate to severe febrile episodes in patients with neutropenia.

Impact of Mycotoxin in the Program Cell Death / Necrosis

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research Fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical sciences,
Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, India

Abstract
Genetic instability caused by secondary metabolites produced by fungus. These  mycotoxins are chemical compound which are naturally toxic to cells. Because of ability to generating ROS and RNS caused oxidative stress. Due to their toxicity properties implicate apoptosis and form cancer cell. DNA replication are going to impaired and become damage. Mycotoxins are suppressed tumor suppressing gene and convert proto-oncogene in the oncogene. In this review we explain the control exposure of mycotoxins and provides guidelines to farmers because they are directly contact to these compounds.

Does Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetic Mellitus

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research Fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical sciences,
Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, India

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached endemic scope and is an important risk factor for heart failure (HF).Itself indicated as a group of different disease due to destruction of insulin. A large number of therapy available in the management of this but most prominent therapy uses due to their unique properties; stem cell therapy. A stem cell with extensive proliferative nature may provide a precious source of islet progenitor cells. Through transplantation of insulin-producing cells offers a promising therapy to profligate diabetes. A number of studies have demonstrated that a progenitor/stem-cell population can be expanded in vitro to generate large numbers of islet progenitor cells. However, efficient and directed differentiation of these cells to an endocrine pancreatic lineage has been difficult to achieve. They review growing of the islet cells obtained from embryonic stem cell, or adult human tissues which produced insulin to treatments of diabetic patients.

Prebiotics and its Role in Therapy

About Author: Mr. Rupajit Bhattacharjee, M.Pharm

What are Prebiotics?
Prebiotics are components present in foods, or that can be incorporated into foods, which yield health benefits related to their interactions with the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
Prebiotics can be defined as “nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth of one or a limited number of bacterial species in the colon, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, which have the potential to improve host health.” Prebiotics are, simply speaking, the “food” for beneficial bacteria.

“The Unknown Mystery of Death - Risk Factor for Development of Cancer Cervix in Indian Women.”

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research fellow)
Institute of Medical science (CEMS)
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi - 221005

Abstract
India, the disease accounts for an estimated 24 percent of India’s cancer cases among women and additionally 74,000 indian women die annually from the disease, which results from the abnormal growth of cells in the cervix (the narrow opening of the uterus or womb). Cervical cancer is the most common disorder among middle-aged women which increased the mortality rate  in  Indian rural women as compared urban due to lack of  their awareness and  don’t acquire appropriate education .  Uncontrolled growth (cancer) in the cervix is not a single type. It is not usually associated with hereditary genetic factor but also a number of other factors (Chemical, Physical , environmental and biological ) indirectly heighten the risk of cervical cancer by increasing the likelihood that a woman will contract an HPV infection. These factors include early age at first intercourse and multiple sex partners. National Cancer Control Program emphasizes the importance of early detection and treatment. But the country has no organized screening program, and many Indian women lack information about the disease and access to prevention and treatment facilities. Therefore, it is most of important to reduced rate of women mortality through proper management.

REVIEW ON OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors: Divya Gupta,
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics),
Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun

Introduction
In the words of Hughes and Mitra2: “ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavours facing the pharmaceutical scientist...The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances...The challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage...The primitive ophthalmic solutions, suspensions and ointment dosage forms are clearly no longer sufficient to combat some present virulent diseases...”

Eye is a unique and very valuable organ. This is considered a window hinge. We can enjoy it and look at the world body. There are many eye diseases that can affect the body and loss of vision as well. Therefore, many eyes in drug delivery systems are available. They are classified as traditional and new drug development system. Topical application of drugs to the eye is the most popular and well-accepted route of administration for the treatment of various eye disorders. The bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs is, however, very poor due to efficient protective mechanisms of the eye. Blinking, baseline and reflex lachrymation, and drainage remove rapidly foreign substances, including drugs, from the surface of the eye [1].

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