Pharmacology Articles

VON HIPPEL-LINDAU (VHL) SYNDROME: A CRITICAL INSIGHT

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Tapan Behl*, Ishneet Kaur, Puneet Sudan, Monika Sharma, Dr. Heena Goel
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology,
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Mohali
tapanbehl31@gmail.com

Abstract:
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a rare genetic neoplastic disorder, arising from germline mutations in the VHL gene, characterized by the development of visceral cysts, specific benign and malignant tumors in multiple organ systems that have subsequent potential for spiteful change. It is caused by point mutations or deletions in a tumor suppressor gene. A tumor suppressor gene is the one which keeps cells from growing and dividing too rapidly in an uncontrolled way. Mutations in this gene prevent production of the VHL protein or lead to the production of an abnormal version of the protein. An altered or missing VHL protein cannot effectively regulate cell survival and division. As a result, cells grow and divide uncontrollably to form tumors and cysts that are characteristic of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Although there is great variation in the clinical presentation, those who have a mutated gene are at greatly increased risk of developing spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), retinal hemangioblastoma, cerebellar  hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic and renal cysts, endolymphatic  sac tumors, hemangiomas of the adrenals, liver and lungs, and papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis or broad ligament. The age at which the tumors present ranges from early childhood to the seventh decade of life. Early diagnosis, screening of family members and lifelong surveillance of VHL patients is recommended.

SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].

DRUG THERAPY PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
The improper use of drugs can leads to patient morbidity and even mortality. Drug therapy problems are the clinical territory of the pharmaceutical care practitioner and the resolution of identifying drug therapy problems help patients to achieve their goals of therapy and understand the best possible outcomes from drug therapy. To identify, resolve and prevention of drug therapy problems, the practitioner must understand how patients with drug therapy problems present in the clinical setting. Stating the problem and identifying the cause requires involves clinical judgment by the practitioner. All patient problems involving medications can be categorized into seven types. These include all side effects, toxic reactions, treatment failures, or the need for additive, synergistic, or preventive medications, as well as noncompliance. During 2002, there were 3.3 billion prescriptions dispensed from community pharmacies throughout the United States and over 44,000 hospitalized patients die each year resulting from medical errors. Recent research, on drug-related problems and adverse drug reactions has identified several categories of risk factors that may be used to identify patients who are susceptible to drug related problems and adverse drug reactions. It is essential that practitioners who intend to provide pharmaceutical care understand the descriptions and identification of each type of drug therapy problem as well as their common causes. Continuous referral to the seven categories of drug therapy problems ensures that a consistent, rational, comprehensive, and effective care plan can be established for even the most complicated patient.

SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF FLAVONE DERIVATIVES AGAINST ESTROGEN DEPENDENT CANCERS BY RATIONAL APPROCH

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Vanraj Thakor1*, Jalpa Kher2, Fenil Bhayani1, Bhavini Atodaria1, Malleshappa Noolvi1
1Shree Dhanvantary college of pharmacy, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India.
2Ashok & Rita Patel institute of Biotechnology, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
vanraj7777@gmail.com, jkher3333@gmail.com

Abstract
Aromatase and 17-ßHSD inhibitors are main target of pharmacological interest for the treatment of estrogen dependent cancers. Chalcones, Coumarins, Flavones, Isoflavones have been reported for such inhibition and are used for treatment of brest tumors. So in this topic, Flavone derivatives containing Imidathiadiazole, Thiadiazole, Triazole and benzimidazole hetrocycles synthesised by using simple laboratory reagents like 2-Hydroxy Acetophenone and 4-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde to convert chalcone leads to formation of Flavones by cyclazation using Microwave and followed by attachment of different hetrocycles to form Flavone derivatives and charactrarized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemantal analysis. These Flavone derivatives found to exhibit moderate to high inhibitory activity against Estrogen dependent cancers.

MARFAN SYNDROME

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jyotirmoyee Patnaik
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
Rourkela, Orissa
patnaik.jyotirmoyee@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Marfan syndrome is an inherited disease that affects the body's connective tissue, which provides the strength, support and elasticity to tendons, cartilage, heart valves, blood vessels, and other vital parts of the body. Marfan syndrome is a systemic, heritable connective tissue disorder that affects many different organ systems.

A REVIEW ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
1Rashmi Verma, 2Rakesh Tiwle
1Rungta College of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Bhilai, 491024, C.G
2Shri Laxmanrao Maker Institute of Pharmacy, Amgaon, Gondia, Maharashtra, India- 441902.
rashmi.verma501@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In the ancient age COPD has a variable natural history and not all individuals follow the same course about 15-20% of smokers develop clinically significant COPD. It is characterized by the airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. It is predominantly caused by smoking, particularly occupational exposures, may also contribute to the development of COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is diagnosed using a medical device called a spirometer, which measures air volume and flow, the main components of common clinical breathing tests (pulmonary function tests). Long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In this article we are focus about and detail review on the COPD.

NOVEL ANTI-DIABETES MECHANISM – NEXT GENERATION OF IMPROVED THERAPIES

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, R.Venu Priya3, P.Bharath Rathna Kumar4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
3Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
4Director Of JNTUA-Otri
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur,
Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Scientists have uncovered a novel mechanism that dramatically increases insulin sensitivity and reduces the risk of developing type-2 DM and cardio vascular disease. According to American diabetes association, type-2 DM is closely associated to obesity. The new studies on DM focus on controlling a fat-regulating protein known as PPARg. In fact, excess body fat is the most problematic risk factor among all the factors of metabolic syndrome.  The formation of fat cells in the body is regulated by a protein called PPARg finding of drugs that can promote increased insulin sensitization but not activate the classical fat cell generating pathway of PPARg is the thrust area for research.  Hence targeting the fat regulating ability of this protein in order to treat DM important.

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE HERBAL FORMULA "EKPO AGANWO"

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon Fidelis Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Background:
Cancer is a major global public health problem and has metamorphosed to a leading cause of death globally. Latest predictions by the Word Health Organization suggest that cancer death rate may escalate to about 15 million deaths by 2030. Though various anticancer agents have been discovered and are in use currently, they have not been able to tame the disease effectively. This has left the scientific community with the task of discovering/developing better agents with high efficacy and minimal adverse effect. There have been increased interests by both developed countries and the scientific community towards the importance of herbs as a fountainhead in the development of newer drugs, as many classes of drugs now in use contain models from natual product. Ekpo aganwo (EA) is an herbal formulation prepared from the stem bark of Khaya senegalensis and is its main constituent.
Aim:
This study was design as a preliminary assessment of the antiproliferative potential of EA.
Materials and Method:
The modified Ayinde et al., bench top assay method was employed for the study.
Result:
Methotrexate compared with control, caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle lenght throughout the study. The percentage inhibition was however highest after 72 hours, with a rate of 86.67%. EA 10 mg/ml did not produce any significant decrease in radicle growth after 48 hours, but however showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth after 72 hours of experiment. The percentage inhibition after 72 hours was 24.56%. EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml produced significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth throughout the experiment. The percentage inhbition of EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml was 28.07 - 59.65 % after 72 hours.
Conclusion: The results obtained have favoured the postulation of EA having an anticancer potential, and this have been supported by the significant antiproliferative activity it produced during the experiment.

DRUG INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL TOXICITY: MECHANISTIC DIVERSITY AND DELETERIOUS CONSEQUENCES FOR THE LIVER

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Keyur S. Patel*, Mital Mehta
Department of Pharmacology,
Anand Pharmacy College, Anand.
Gujarat, India.
keyurpatel200189@gmail.com

Abstract
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a leading cause of severe liver disease and withdrawal of an approved drug from the market. DILI accounts for acute liver failure, liver transplantation or death in the United States today. A recent retrospective study indicates that the risk of DILI is enhanced when the administered daily dosage is higher than 50 mg or when the drug undergoes significant liver metabolism. Hence airs a major clinical and regulatory challenge.
This review Sum up Direct mitochondrial impairment and Specific drug induced mitochondrial dysfunction, current mechanistic concepts of DILI in a 2-step model that limits its principle mechanisms to this main ways of initial injury. Umpteen Studies that evaluate the risk of hepatotoxicity from Statins in Hyperlipidemic Patients.  In this article, It will review the pathogenesis of drug induced mitochondrial liver toxicity and deleterious consequences of Atorvastatin.

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES