PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY STUDIES OF ‘FICUS RELIGIOSA'

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In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an uncreative gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (an homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator").

The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness.Gas chromatography is in principle similar to column chromatography (as well as other forms of chromatography, such as HPLC, TLC), but has several notable differences. Firstly, the process of separating the compounds in a mixture is carried out between a liquid stationary phase and a gas mobile phase, whereas in column chromatography the stationary phase is a solid and the mobile phase is a liquid. Secondly, the column through which the gas phase passes is located in an oven where the temperature of the gas can be controlled, whereas column chromatography (typically) has no such temperature control. Thirdly, the concentration of a compound in the gas phase is solely a function of the vapor pressure of the gas.Gas chromatography is also sometimes known as vapour-phase chromatography (VPC), or gas–liquid partition chromatography (GLPC). These alternative names, as well as their respective abbreviations, are frequently used in scientific literature. Strictly speaking, GLPC is the most correct terminology, and is thus preferred by many authors.

High-performance liquid chromatography
(sometimes referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), HPLC, is a chromatographic technique used to separate a mixture of compounds in analytical chemistry and biochemistry with the purpose of identifying, quantifying and purifying the individual components of the mixture. Some common examples are the separation and quantitation of performance enhancement drugs (e.g. steroids) in urine samples, or of vitamin D levels in serum.HPLC typically utilizes different types of stationary phases (i.e. sorbents) contained in columns, a pump that moves the mobile phase and sample components through the column, and a detector capable of providing characteristic retention times for the sample components and area counts reflecting the amount of each analyte passing through the detector.

5.2 METHODOLOGY

Collection of plant material
The plant material was collected from local area of Janagon, Warangal in MARCH 2012 and was authenticated at the Department of Chemistry, Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Preparation of the Extract
Stem barks of Ficus religiosa Were collected and were dried at room temperature (37°c). It was powdered and sieved through muslin cloth. The preparation of extract was carried out  to the method of extraction briefly, the stem bark of F. religiosa was shade dried after collection for 5 days and was powdered. Approximately 0.95 kg of powdered drug material was extracted using 450ml Chloroform in RBF of Soxhlet apparatus (Janagon, Warangal, India). The powdered bark was filled in condenser with appropriate weighing, then it has been fixed to the RBF. Boil at 40-55°c for 32hr.


 

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