MODERN METHODS OF VOLATILE OIL EXTRACTION: A REVIEW

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About Authors:
*Kambham Venkateswarlu, Billu Guruprasad
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy,
Palluru, Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compoundsfrom plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.

Extractions use two immiscible phases to separate a solute from one phase into the other. The distribution of a solute between two phases is an equilibrium condition described by partition theory. Boiling tea leaves in water extracts the tannins, theobromine, and caffeine (the good stuff) out of the leaves and into the water. More typical lab extractions are of organic compounds out of an aqueous phase and into an organic phase.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1665

EXTRACTION:-
Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Steam distillation is often used. Other processes include expression or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.

An oilis "essential" in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose.

TYPES&MEDICINALUSES OF VOLATILE OILS:-
There is a wide variety of essential oils available. Below are some of the more frequently used essential oils for treating the more common ailments that may cause us mental or physical discomfort. Most of these plants are already in your gardens. A large amount of plant matter is needed to obtain a significant amount of essential oil. However hydrosols are a safe and effective solution for home use and easily made from the smaller alembics. The most suitable stills are the Long column or Rotating Column. All the plants below can be steam distilled in either of these.


Basil
(Ocimum Basilicum L.)
Steam distilled
Harvest just before flowering for best results

- Insect repellent.
- Antiseptic for respiratory tract (bronchitis, asthma, respiratory allergies).
- Calmative (insomnia, nervousness, anxiety).
- Vasodilator and circulation stimulant.





Cedar
(Juniperus Virginiana C.)
Steam distilled from the wood shavings.

- Antiseptic for respiratory tract (bronchitis, coughing) and expectorant.
- Antiseptic for urinary tract.
- Antiseptic for skin problems (acne, oily skin, cutaneous eruptions, eczemas) and scalp (dandruff, greasy hair, hair loss).
- Insect repellent.
- Anti-cellulite.








Eucalyptus
(Eucalyptus Globulus M.)
Either a simple distillation or steam distillation of both together.
From the leaves.

- Antiseptic for respiratory tract (asthma, bronchitis, flu, colds, sinusitis, coughing).
- Antipyretic.
- Analgesic for rheumatic (arthritis, gout, rheumatism) and muscular pains.
- Skin healing (wounds, herpes, burns) and scalp.
- Insect repellent.


Fennel
(Foeniculum Vulgare M.)
Steam distilled from the crushed seeds.

- Analgesic for menstrual pains.
- Antiseptic for skin problems (oily skin and cellulite).
- Antiseptic for urinary tract (cystitis, kidney stones).
- Digestive (intestinal colic, flatulence, indigestion).
- Diuretic.
- Antispasmodic.
- Reinvigorating (tiredness, physical exertion).


Rose Geranium
(Pelargonium Graveolens G.)
Steam distilled from the flowers and leaves.

- Insect repellent.
- Anti-cellulite.
- Skin healing (acne, wounds, herpes, eczemas, burns), scalp and mouth (mouth ulcers, abscesses, gingivitis).
- Antiseptic for urinary tract.
- Antidepressant and calmative (fatigue, stress).
- Analgesic for menstrual and rheumatic pains.


Ginger
(Zengiber Officinalis)
Steamed distilled from the macerated root.

- Vasodilator and circulation stimulating.
- Antipyretic.
- Anticough.
- Expectorant,  Digestive.





Kanuka
(Kunzea ericoides)
Steam distilled from the flowering spikes

- Foot care, used in preparations to counteract body and foot odour.
- Antiseptic.
- Antibacterial.
- Relieves swelling.
- Soothing on bites and sun burn.


Lavender
(Lavandula Angustifolia L.)
Steam distilled from the flowers

- Antiseptic for skin problems, gastro intestinal tract, urinary tract and ear infection.
- Antidepressant.
- Calmative (insomnia, anxiety).
- Pain relief for headaches and rheumatism (arthritis, gout, rheumatism).
- Skin healing (acne, burns, eczemas), mouth and scalp.


Lemon Balm
(Melissa Officinalis)
Steam distilled from the leaves and flowering tops

- Calmative and tonic (depression, melancholy, insomnia, anxiety).
- Antiseptic for skin and scalp.
- Antihistamine (allergies, asthma, respiratory problems).





Lemongrass
(Cymbopogon Citratus)
Steam distilled from the leaves

- Analgesic for muscular pains and inflammations.
- Reinvigorating (anxiety, depression).
- Insect and moths repellent.
- Stimulating for the augmentation of mother’s milk.
- Vasodilator (varicose veins, tired legs).
- Antipyretic.

CHEMICAL NATURE:-
Essential oils, like all organic compounds, are made up of hydrocarbon molecules
•    Terpene hydrocarbons
*    Monoterpene hydrocarbons
*    Sesquiterpenes
•    Oxygenated compounds
*    Phenols
*    Alcohols
-    Monoterpene alcohols
-    Sesquiterpene alcohols
*    Aldehydes
*    Ketones
*    Esters
*    Lactones
*    Coumarins
*    Ethers
*    Oxides

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