MANGIFERA INDICA: A REVIEW

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III. DESCRIPTION:
Mangifera indica is a large spreading evergreen tree up to 15 meters in height, all parts glabrous except the inflourescence. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, coriaceaus  12.5-25 by 3.8-7.5 cm, oblang lanceolate, acute, acuminate or subobtuse, shining, entire, the margins often undulate, base narrowed, petioles 1.2-3.8 cm long.

Flowers monoecious, 5mm long, with a somewhat disagreeable odour, arranged in large many flowered pubescent panicles longer than the leaves, pedicles short, thick, bracteoles ovate, small. Fruits are large, fleshy drupes, green, orange, yellow, or red in colour, seed solitary, encased in a hard compressed fibrous endocarp.

IV. MICROSCOPY:
Mature bark has a  wide cork consists of tangentially elongated cells, few outer layers brown and inner lighter in colour, at few places lenticles, secondary cortex absent; secondary phloem wide, consists of sieve elements, parenchyma and phloem fibres, traversed by medullary rays, resin canals and yellow coloured elongated, tannin sacs abundantly scattered throughout phloem .

Stone cells thick walled, lignified, rectangular with wide lumen starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate oresent inj phloem cells.

Phloem fibers in group of 2-15 or more cells, long and thick walled, phloem rays 1-3 seriate, containing crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.

V. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:
Mango bark contains 10-20% tannins, namely protocatechuic acid and catechin.

Additionally it also contains   mangiferin,
Alanine
Glycine
Aminobutyric acid
Kinic acid
Shikimic acid

Mangiferin is a polyphenolic compound and is a antimicrobial, analgesic and antioxidant.

VI. STANDARDS:
Foreign Organic Matter: Not more than 2%
Total Ash: Not more than 9%
Acid-insoluble Ash: Not more than 2%
Alcohol-soluble Extractive:  Not less than 20%
Water soluble Extractive: Not less than 14%

VII. IDENTIFICATION BY T.L.C:
T.L.C of the alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate using n-Butanol:Acetic acid: Water [4:1:5] shows under:
1. U.V. [366 nm] three violet spots at Rf – 0.12, 0.73 and 0.87
2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four yellow coloured spots appear at Rf – 0.33, 0.51, 0.74 and 0.88.

VIII. PROPERTIES AND USES:
The root and bark are astringent, acrid, refrigerant, styptic, anti-syphilitic, vulnerary, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and constipating. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta. Matrorrhagia, leucorrhoea, syphilis, wounds, ulcers, vomiting, uteritis, diarrhoea, dysentery, diphtheria and rheumatism.

The leaves are astringent, refrigerant, styptic and vulnerary, constipation. They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hiccough, wounds, ulcers, diarrhoea, dysentery, pharyngopathy, haemorrhoids, and stomatopathy. The ash of the leaves is useful in burns and scalds.

The flowers are astringent, refrigerant, styptic, vulnerary, constipation and haematinic. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, wounds, ulcers, anorexia, dyspepsia, uro-edema, gleet, diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, and anemia.

The unripe fruits are sour, acrid, refrigerant, digestive and carminative. They are useful in gastropathy, dyspepsia, pharyngopathy, ulcers, dysentery, urethrourea, and vaginopathy. The ripe fruits are refrigerant, sweet, emollient, and laxative, cardiotonic, haemostatic, aphrodisiac and tonic.

The seed kernel is sweet, acrid, astringent, refrigerant, anthelmintic, constipating, haemostatic, vulnery, and uterine tonic. It is useful in vitiated conditions of pitta and kapha, helminthiasis, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, haemorrhoids, ulcers, bruises, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, diabetes, heartburn and vomiting.

IX. PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES:
Various pharmacological studies have been conducted so far using different parts of mangifera indica. Some of them are as follows:
* Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial of the seed kernel of Mangifera indica.
* Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Mangifera indica in rats.
* Evaluation of antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice.
* Antiplasmodal and antipyretic screening of mangifera indica extract.
* Anthelmintic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica stem bark components Vimang and Mangiferin.
* Mangifera indica leaf extract [Vimang] and mangiferin modulate mouse humour immune responses.
* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract [Vimang].
* In vitro anti oxidant property of Mangifera indica leaf extract.
* Effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract on protein and hepatic microsome peroxidation.

X.CONCLUSION:
It gives the various pharmacological actions as mentioned above. Ii is most widely distributed in India.

XI. REFERENCES:
1.Anonymous, 2006, Area and production of horticultural crops. Bulletin of National Horticulture Board, India.
2.Welsh, J.C.P., and Mc-clelland, M., 1990, Polymorphisms generated by arbitrarily primed PCR in the mouse: Application to strain identification and genetic mapping. Nucl. Acids Res., 19: 303-306.
3.Williams, J. G. K.., Kuber, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey, S.V., 1990, DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res, 18: 6531-6535.
4.Williams, J. G. K., Rafalski, J. A. and Tingey, S. V., 1992, Genetic analysis using RAPD markers. Method in Enzymology, 56: 254–260.
5.Kirtikar, Bose. Indian medicinal plants. 2nd edition: 355-361.
6.Orient longman. Medicinal plants of Indian origin: 380-383.
7.Sharma PV. Dravyaguma Vignana: 1998; 2:661-665.
8.Das PC., Ashesh Das, Suvra Mandal, C.N.Islam and P.K.Antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities of seed kernel of Mangifera indica, Chakrabarthy, Current science: 1989; 62[3]; 437-437.
9.Gracia .D, J.Leiro, R.Delgado, Gema Perez and Olg Soniaq Leon. Evaluation of the in vitro anti oxidant activiry of Mangifera indica leaf extract; Phytotherapy research; 2000; 14[6]; 424-427.
10.Martinez, Gregorio, Gema Perez, Maria A, Rodriguiz H, Attila Guiliani, Nunez Selles and Olg Sonia Leon. Protective effect of mangifera indica leaf extract on the injury associated with hepatic ischaemia reperfusion; Phytotherapy Research; 2003; 17[3]; 197-201.
11.Peyyeti, P.Amaravthi, S.R.Nandikolla and S.P.Rajendra hepatoprotective effect of Aloe vera and Mangifera indica; Indian journal of pharmacology; 1999; 30[3]: 205.
12.Aderibigbe A O, emudianughe TS, Lawal WA. Evaluation of the antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice. Phytotherapy Research; 2001 Aug; 15[5]: 456-458.
13.A text book of Pharmcognosy by C.K.Kokate, A.P.Purohit, S.B.Gokhale: 45th edition: Vol-I:Pg No: 9.18-9.19.

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