HERBAL ANTIOXIDANT: A REVIEW

 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due
Cyanogenic glycosides (found in most stone fruit seeds, bark, and leaves) are found in high concentration in apricot seeds. Laetrile, a purported alternative treatment for cancer, is extracted from apricot seeds. Apricot seeds were used against tumors as early as AD 502. In England during the 17th century, apricot oil was also used against tumors, swellings, and ulcers. In 2005, scientists in the Republic of Koreafound that treating human prostate cancer cells with amygdalin induces programmed cell death in vitro. They concluded, "amygdalin may offer a valuable option for the treatment of prostate cancers".

A 2006 systematic review by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded: "The claim that [l]aetrile has beneficial effects for cancer patients is not supported by data from controlled clinical trials. This systematic review has clearly identified the need for randomised or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of aetrile or amygdalin for cancer treatment." Given the lack of evidence, laetrile has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Citral Citrussy
α–pinene Terperic, Oxidised



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT
Both triploid and tetraploid A. calamus contain alpha-asarone. Other phytochemicals include:
Beta-asarone.
eugenol.
Diploids do not contain beta-asarone (β-asarone). A recent study showed that beta-asarone isolated from Acorus calamus oil inhibits adipogenesis in3T3-L1 cells and thus reduces lipid accumulation in fat cells.

REFERENCE
1. Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Patel D, Huang D, Kababick JP (2006). "Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palmberry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (acai)". J Agric Food Chem 54 (22): 8598–603. doi:10.1021/jf060976g.PMID 17061839.
2. Lubrano C, Robin JR, Khaiat A (1994). "Fatty-acid, sterol and tocopherol composition of oil from the fruit mesocarp of 6 palm species in French-Guiana". Oleagineux 49: 59–6.
3. Pacheco-Palencia LA, Mertens-Talcott S, Talcott ST (Jun 2008). "Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and thermal stability of a phytochemical enriched oil from Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (12): 4631–6. doi:10.1021/jf800161u.PMID 18522407.
4. Nutrition Research Center, Alfalfa Nutritional Value. Nutritionresearchcenter.org (21 March 2008). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
5. The Facts About Alfalfa, Melissa Kaplans' Herb Care. Anapsid.org. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
6. "Alfalfa: The Father of All Foods". ALFALFA - A Discussion of Vitamin B-12 in The Vegetarian Diet. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
7. Lewis, WH and Elvin-Lewis, MPF (2003). Medical botany: plants affecting human health. Hoboken, New Jersey;John Wiley & Sons. Page 214.
8. Chang, Hyun-Kyung, et al. (2006). "Amygdalin induces apoptosis through regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells".Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29(8), pp. 1597–1602.doi:10.1248/bpb.29.1597. PMID 16880611.
9. Milazzo S, Ernst E, Lejeune S, Schmidt K (2006). "Laetrile treatment for cancer". In Milazzo, Stefania. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD005476.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005476.pub2.PMID 16625640.
10.^ What is laetrile?, National Cancer Institute, Retrieved on 14 January 2007
11. Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X.
12.Essential oil composition and antimicrobial assay of Acorus calamus leaves from different wild populations, J Radušien?, A Judžentien?… – Plant Genetics, 2007 – Cambridge Univ Press, 1982; Lander and Schreier, 1990

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