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In other cases, such as European cosmetic known as Ceruse was used from the second century to the 19th century. Cosmeceutically active ingredients are constantly being developed by big and small corporations engaged in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, natural products, and cosmetics, while advances in the field and knowledge of skin biology and pharmacology have facilitated the cosmetic industry’s development of novel active compounds more rapidly. Desirable features of Cosmeceutical agents are efficacy, safety, formulation stability, novelty, and patent protection.

These cosmeceuticals serve as a bridge between personal care product, pharmaceutical and phyto-material. Cosmeceutically  active ingredient are now being used by large and small manufacturers engaged in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and natural extracts in cosmetics formulation. The advantage in the field of cosmetics and knowledge of skin biology and pharmacology have facilitated the formulation of cosmetics.5

Changes the gender divide the market share of men’s Cosmeceutical products is starting to be significant but they have long way to go before they rival those for women. A report published by the natural marketing institute NMI in 2007 showed that fastest growing segment today is the men’s Cosmeceuticals range. The demand for looking good and maintaining youthful healthy skin no longer just for women. The first major wave of men’s skin care product appeared in the mid 1990s and has since grown steadily to a projected $6 billion in sales for 2008.

Men are no longer embarrassed to shope for creams or admit their equal desire to look young. Anti aging skincare line for men can be designed using Cosmeceuticals ingredients such as vitamins, Phyto-chemicals, acids, anti-oxidants and essentials oils.The youngest age group being addressed for skin care are babies ,with baby Cosmeceutical products including sunscreens.6

Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic preparations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant properties. These antioxidant botanicals are generally classified into three categories depending upon the nature of their constituents as Carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. The carotenoids are structurally related to vitamin A and constitute various retinols like retinoic acid. Flavonoids, in addition to the antioxidant action, impart the Uv protection and metal chelating properties. The polyphenolics is a large class and contains various molecules like rosemarinic acid , hypericin.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) is best known as a spice used primarily in Asian cuisine, particularly curry, and in prepared mustard. It is also used in some traditional Indian communities as a topical burn treatment. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane), the key biologically active component of turmeric, has shown great potency against acute inflammation,and has been shown to exhibit significant wound healing and antioxidant properties.The paste of turmeric powder has been used as antiseptic and for skin nourishment. Curcumin the active compound of turmeric, is a polyphenol used in skin care preparations.

Aloe vera
It is also known as Lily of the desert or the Plant of Immortality. It is recommended for sunburn, minor burns, wrinkles, insect bites, skin irritations minor cuts and scratches. Research has shown that the clear gel has a dramatic ability to heal wounds, ulcers and burns by putting a protective coating on the affected areas .It also clears away blemishes protects the skin against infections and reduces wrinkles. It is also cited as being a prophylactic for dry skin, which is prone to inflammation, bacteriostatic.

Caffeine, consumed in popular beverages such as coffee and tea, as well as in certain foods, is thought to have significant anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Specifically, caffeine is believed to confer an anticarcinogenic effect after UVB exposure, chemically inducing apoptosis of UV-damaged cells, suggesting the potential for incorporation of caffeine in topical formulations intended for use.

Ferulic acid
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is pervasive in the plant world, and considered a potent antioxidant known to provide photoprotection to skin when it is incorporated into cosmetic lotions, sunscreens, and other skin products.  Further, it is believed to act synergistically with vitamins C and E and beta-carotene.

German chamomile (Matricaria recutita or Chamomilla recutita), one of the 12 most commonly used medicinal herbs,has been recognized for its therapeutic, soothing properties since the age of Hippocrates.chamomile exhibits some antioxidant activity.Chamomile is included in skin formulations as an emollient and to provide anti-inflammatory action for sensitive skin.7

Mechanism Action of skin
The skin is the outer covering of the body. It is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has multiple layers of ectodermaltissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals, except that it is not protected by a pelt. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it appears hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin. The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin". Skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

Skin components
Skin has mesodermal cells, pigmentation, or melaninprovided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation(UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA-repair enzymesthat help reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genesfor these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, malignantmelanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it to spreadquickly, and can often be deadly. Skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner.

Skin performs the following functions:
1.Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense, Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.

2.Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury, see somatosensory system and haptics.

3.Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.

4.Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.

5.Aesthetics and communication: others see our skin and can assess our mood, physical state and attractiveness.

6.Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.

7.Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.

Skin layers
is composed of three primary layers:
·   The epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection.
·   The dermis, which serves as a location for the appendages of skin.
·   The hypodermis subcutaneous adipose layer.

Epidermis is divided into several layers where cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin. They eventually reach the top layer called stratum corneum. This process is called keratinization and takes place within weeks. The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead cells.

Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:
•    Stratum corneum
•    Stratum lucidum
•    Stratum granulosum
•    Stratum spinosum
•    Stratum germinativum

Disease’s of skin

Vitiligo is a condition in which areas of skin lose their normal pigment and so become white. It is common, and affects about 1% of the world’s population.The pigment that gives your skin its normal colour is melanin, which is made by cells known as melanocytes.

Scabies is a common and very itchy skin condition caused by human scabies mites. It can affect people of any age but is most common in the young and the elderly. The mites that cause scabies are tiny parasites, smaller than a pinhead.  The rash of scabies is a mixture of scratch marks and red scaly areas; later it can become infected and develop small pus spots.  

Rosacea is a common rash, found on the central part of the face, usually of a middle-aged person. A tendency to flush easily is followed by persistent redness on the cheeks, chin, forehead and nose. The cause of rosacea is not fully understood, but many think that the defect lies in the blood vessels in the skin of the face, which dilate too easily.

Psoriasis is a common skin problem affecting about 2% of the population. It occurs equally in men and women, at any age, and tends to come and go unpredictably. It is not infectious, and does not scar the skin. The skin is a complex organ made up of several different layers.

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin.  If it is treated early, the outlook is usually good.  It is not contagious. The word ‘melanoma’ comes from the Greek word ‘melas’, meaning black.  Melanin is the dark pigment that gives the skin its natural colour.

Eczema (Atopic Eczema)
Atopic eczema is an inflammatory condition of the skin. Atopic is the term used to describe conditions such as eczema, asthma, seasonal rhinitis and hay fever, which often have a genetic basis. Eczema is the term used to describe changes in the upper layer of the skin that include redness, blistering, oozing, crusting, scaling, thickening and sometimes pigmentation.8,9



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