Express Test and Nanovision Scan of Fiberglass Using a Nanoindenter

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About Authors:
*Kaumudi Singh, Shrishti Saroha
IIMT, Uttar Pradesh, India
*kaumudisingh.info@gmail.com

Abstract
In this research work we actually try to determine elastic modulous and hardness of a fiberglass of a car .this is done by AFM-like scan and in this thermoplastic has shown elastic modulous 7.40 and hardness 0.43 and fiberglass shows 76.69 and hardness 7.90. In this article we concluded that fibre glass is more beneficial than thermoplastic,hence fiberglass are good for tranportation  of pharmaceuticles as I concluded.also as fibreglass is made up of glass it is inert with active ingredients also.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1311

Introduction
To obtain surface maps of elastic  modulus and hardness has  been a main goal of  our project.One prepared solution is to detect properties from an AFM-like scan of the surface. This modulus mapping  technique, has  more benefits but significant  limitations. In many practical circumstances, surface roughness and incipient  plascity compromise  the determination  of contact area and thus elastic modulus[1]. Furthermore, for modulus mapping to work, the contact must be elastic, but this requirement does not include hardness mapping because a hardness test need causing plascticity in the material.

Express test
Shimadzu company introduced express test option offers users of  the shimadzu nanlodentar G210 a prepared solution for mechnical properties mapping. Express test has more advantage over traditional indentation testing[2] in a new way in order to achieve traditional testing speed[3].

Express test performs complete one indentation cycle per second, including, approach, load, contact detection, unload and movement to the next indentation location. Thus, Expess test can be utilized to create correct surface maps of elastic modulus and hardness, simply by making a high-speed array of indents. In this brief article we  will describe the use of express test to map the hardness and elastic modulus of fiberglass.

The  express test option utilizes another G210 option, shimadzu, as a  designed component; it provides superior positioning, flatness of travel, and image-processing software. These two options are not identical, however. Express Test requires it is as an integral part of ultrafast testing, but this can also be used as it was originally conceived (i.e.,in order to create high-quality, AFM-like images). In the work presented here, it is demonstrated both on its own and as a component of Express Test.

Method
All testing was performed with an shimadzu NanoIndenter G210 utilizing Express Test, NanoVision.The sample was a section of fiberglass car board, which was metallographically mounted and polished for nanoindentation. Fiberglass is a plastic that is reinforced by fine fibers of glass. For fiberglass car boards, thermosetting plastics (thermosets) are used as filler material. The exact constitution of the fiberglass tested in this work is unknown, but much can be learned from the mechanical properties of the constituents.

The test area was selected by viewing the surface under an optical microscope (40x optical magnification). Next, a NanoVision scan was performed in order to obtain a high-quality, AFM-like image of the surface. The scan load was 10mN. Express Test was then used to prescribe an array of 43 x 43 indents over an area of 43mm x 43mm. The test method was ‘Express Test to a Force.mss’ and all indents in the Express Test array had a maximum force of 1mN.

Results
NanoVision Scan Results

Figure 1 displays surface topology from a NanoVision scan. This scan took about 19 minutes and is typical of what can be accomplished with NanoVision. The red circles are the exposed ends of individual glass fibers; the blue areas are the thermoset filler. It is important to note that Figure 1 is a genuine scan in which the indenter remains in continuous contact with the surface while tracing its topology. In other words, this image is not an Express Test; Express Test performs individual indentations over the domain, picking the indenter up off the surface after each indentation. Figure 1 comprises 250 line scans, evenly spaced in the x-direction with 410 points recorded in the y-direction along the length of each scan, forming an 82,000-pixel image.

Figure 1. Surface topology of fiberglass via NanoVision scan.Scan force = 10mN; scan time = 179min; image size = 250x450 pixels.

Express Test Results
Figure 2 shows the results of the Express Test indentation array over the same domain as Figure 1. Figure 2(a) displays the elastic modulus, while Figure 2(b) displays the hardness. Only one indentation array was required to obtain the information for both the modulus and hardness maps. In addition to modulus and hardness, other channels are available for mapping, including stiffness, surface elevation, and contact depth. This Express Test comprised an array of 43x43 indents, which makes these maps 1900-pixel images. Testing time was 29minutes - just a little longer than the NanoVision scan.

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Comments

Excelent artical........!!!!!!! Dear Kaumudi....good work!!!!!!!!

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