Emblica Officinalis A Review

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Antipyretic analgesic activity:
This study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity.7

Cyto-protective and Immunomodulatory property:
In this study The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive agent. Chromium (Cr) treatment results in enhanced cytotoxicity, free radical production, lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels.3

Anti aging tonic:
In this studyuse of  Emblica Officinalis in daily diet for prevention and treatment is described. Cultural beliefs, experiences and availability of various herbs in India has made herbal preparations a part of Indian daily food supplements. The use of functional foods and nutraceuticals can be traced back to ancient Indian system of medicine  Ayurveda, a 5000 year old medical science. The classic texts of Ayurveda are full of references of the effects of food in various health conditions. Ayurveda clearly defines the use of food products for improving quality of life and general rejuvenation. Long before there were vitamins, minerals and antioxidant supplements, there was Chyawanprash (Cha-van-prash). One of the most respected anti-aging tonic used in Ayurveda.

Anti diabetic property:
This study suggest the anti diebetic potential of the Emblica officinalis. The level of blood glucose in type-2 diabetic patient was studied after the administration of amla powder 250 mg twice a day for 60 days it was observed that drug treatment decreases blood glucose level and hence the Emblica Officinalis is good agent to treat type-2 diabetic patient.8

Atheroscleroesis treatment:
According to this study Emblica Officinalis found to be effective for the reversal  dyslipidemia and intema media thickening and the plaque formation in the aorta in hyper cholesterolaemic rabbit in this study the cholesterol powder (100mg/kg body weight) was administerd orally to the white healthey rabbit for four month to induce hypercholesterolaemia And there after amla extract was given into two dose 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight. For four month.12

Anti-Ulcer :
In this paper  report a novel property of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) fruit pulp in inhibiting thegrowth of Helicobacter pylori in-vitro. In this study, three standard laboratory strains, and five clinical isolates of H. pylori showed sensitivity towards amla extract with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.91 to 1.87 μg/μl. Out of five clinical isolates two were resistant to clarithromycin. The anti-H. pylori bioactive spot with retention factor (Rf) value 0.16 in toluene: choloroform: acetone (40:25:35) has been separated using thin layer chromatography followed by contact bioautography. The bioactive spot appears to be essential oil and/or phenolics. The extract contained 20.55 mg gallic acid equivalent/gm of dry weight of extract. Total reducing power was estimated to be 75.8 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight of extract. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2,2'-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) was 175.76 mg/gm of dry weight of extract when checked by ABTS assay. Thus total phenolics, flavanoids, reducing power and the antioxidant properties of amla is very well retained in the ethanolic extract and makes it suitable for a therapeutic use against H. pylori infection and gastric ulcer.14

This papersuggest thatThe tannoid principles of the fruits of Emblica officinalis have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin-A (37%) and -B (33%) enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT) was investigated for antioxidant activity against ischemia- reperfusion (IRI)-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Vitamin E (VE) was used as the standard antioxidant agent. IRI was induced in isolated rat heart by perfusing it with modified Kreb-Hensleitt’s solution for 5 min, followed by a period of ischemia (stoppage of perfusion) for 10 min and then restoring the perfusion (reperfusion) for 15 min. IRI induced a significant decrease in the activities of cardiac superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. These IRI-induced effects were prevented by the administration of EOT (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt.) and VE (200 mg/kg body wt.) given orally twice daily for 14 days prior to the sacrifice of the animals and initiation of the perfusion experiments. The study confirms the antioxidant effect of E. officinalis and indicates that the fruits of the plant may have a cardioprotective effect.4

Antioxidant activity:
this study shows  Emblica officinalisGaertn. is one of the most important plants of A¯ yurved, the traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica officinalis is processed according to a method named “Svaras Bhavana”, whereby the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits was attributed to the high content of ascorbic acid; however, this has recently been questioned. The aim of the paper is to clarify this matter. A reliable and feasible HPLC method with diode array detection has been developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in Emblica fruit and particularly in Emblica fruit processed according to the Ayurvedic method. The antioxidant effects have also been evaluated in comparison to the real levels of Vitamin C by different antioxidant tests. The data obtained show that the Emblica fruit contains ascorbic acid (0.40%, w/w), and that the Ayurvedic method of processing increases the healthy characteristics of the fruit thanks to a higher antioxidant activity and a higher content of ascorbic acid (1.28%, w/w). It has also been found that Vitamin C accounts for approximately 45–70% of the antioxidant activity.9

Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory and anticancer activity: 
As Amla is traditionally use for severdiseases. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial. And again due to rich vitamin C contain use to treat scurvy.

Antitussive activity:
according to the studyThe antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (E. officinalis, Fam. Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of E. officinalis is not unambiguous. Ahigher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min–1) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA–) was more pronounced. These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E. officinalis is dose-dependent. We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E. officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways.6

Anti venom:
As per this study concern The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.5

Hepato protective:
This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 _l/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats.11

Hypolipidaemic activity:
In this article lipid lowering activity of emblica officinalis was evaluated . rabbit is subjected to cholesterol rich feeding and treated with the fresh juice of emblica officinalis as( 5mg/kg body weight) per rabbit per day for 60 days.1

Antitumour activity:
As per this study is concernAqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (E.O) was found to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in culture in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition was found to be 16.5 mg:ml. E.O and chyavanaprash (a non-toxic herbal preparation containing 50% E.O) extracts were found to reduce ascites and solid tumours in mice induced by DLA cells. Animals treated with 1.25 g:kg b.wt. of E.O extract increased life span of tumour bearing animals (20%) while animals treated with 2.5 g:kg b.wt. of chyavanaprash produced 60.9% increased in the life span. Both E.O and chyavanaprash significantly reduced the solid tumours. Tumour volume of control animals on 30th day was 4.6 ml where as animals treated with 1.25 g:Kg b.wt. of E.O extract and 2.5 g:kg b.wt. of chyavanaprash showed a tumour volume of 1.75 and 0.75 ml, respectively. E.O extract was found to inhibit cell cycle regulating enzymes cdc 25 phosphatase in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition of cdc 25 phosphatase was found to be 5 mg:ml and that needed for inhibition of cdc2 kinase was found to be \100 mg:ml. The results suggest that antitumour activity of E.O extract may partially be due to its interaction with cell cycle regulation. 2


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