EFFECT OF TERMENALIA CATAPPA LEAF EXTRACT ON CAFETERIA INDUCED OBESITY IN RATS

 

RESULTS:
Table1:
Phytochemical evaluation of AETC leaves

Identification test for

Observation

Alkaloids

Positive

Flavonoid

Positive

Glycosides

Positive

Saponins

Positive

Steroids

Negative

Tannins

Positive

Table2:
Effect of AETC leaves on body weight (gm) in cafeteria diet animals (n=6)



Weak


Group-I


Group-II


Group-III


Group-IV


Group-V


0





180.5±1.780


 


 


 

 


184.6±6.118 ns


183.7±4.031ns


179.7±0.9632ns


181.7±4.667ns

 


1


188.5±0.4625

 


201.5±1.454***

 


193.6±0.5995***

 


198.8±0.6636ns

 


196.9±0.6914*

 


2


191.7±1.308

 


212.7±3.820***

 


194.6±0.4083**

 


208.1±2.295ns

 


200.2±1.110*

 


3


193.4±0.7058

 


227.1±3.099***

 


196.8±0.9353***

 


220.3±2.679ns

 


209.2±2.556**

 

Values are mean ± SEM *P < 0.05 considered statistically significant compared to Cafeteria diet control. Group I — Normal healthy control; Group II — Cafeteria diet control; Group

III — Cafeteria diet control + Orlistat (30 mg /kg); Group IV — Cafeteria diet control + AETC (200 mg/kg/day); Group V — Cafeteria diet control + AETC (400 mg/kg/day).

Fall off time & locomotor activity evaluation

Rota rod apparatus
Fall of time was significantly decreased in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant increase in fall of time as compared to cafeteria diet control rats (p<0.01) [Table 3].

Photoactometer
Loco motor activity was significantly decreased in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant increase in loco motor activity as compared to cafeteria diet control rats (P<0.01) (Table 3)

Table3:
Effect of AETC leaves on locomotor activity & fall off time in cafeteria diet animals (n=6)
                                                          


Parameter


Group-I


Group-II


Group-III


Group-I V


Group-V


Fall off time (min)

 


8.980±0.2503

 


2.983±0.2804***


6.950±0.3912***


4.127±0.3014 ns


5.573±0.3037**


Locomotor activity (counts )

 


636.3±6.692


452.0±6.083***


605.7±6.766***


475.0±7.211ns


494.7±4.096**

Values are mean ± SEM *P < 0.05 considered statistically significant compared to Cafeteria diet control. Group I — Normal healthy control; Group II — Cafeteria diet control; Group
III — Cafeteria diet control + Orlistat (30 mg /kg); Group IV — Cafeteria diet control + AETC (200 mg/kg/day); Group V — Cafeteria diet control + AETC (400 mg/kg/day)

Effect of AETC leaves on Serum biochemical parameters:
Total serum cholesterol was increased significantly in cafeteria diet control group rats. Rats treatment with AETC leaves for a period of 4 weeks showed significant (p<0.01) decrease in serum cholesterol level compared to cafeteria diet control group rats. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly increased in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in TG as compared to cafeteria diet control rats. Serum LDL-C levels were increased significantly in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in LDL-C levels compared to cafeteria diet control rats. Serum HDL-C levels showed significant decrease in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.01) increase in HDL-C levels compared to cafeteria diet control rats. Serum VLDL-C levels showed significant increase in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in VLDL-C level compared to cafeteria diet control rats. Serum SGOT levels showed significant increase in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in SGOT level compared to cafeteria diet control rats. Serum SGPT levels showed significant increase in cafeteria diet control group rats compared to normal. Treatment with AETC leaves showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in SGPT level compared to cafeteria diet control rats [Table4].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Various rats of obesity have been used to emulate obesity-like condition in humans, in order to develop effective anti-obesity treatments. Among the animal models of obesity, rats that are fed a cafeteria diet are considered useful; a high percentage of fat in their diet is considered to be an important factor in the development of obesity, leading to the accumulation of body fat (Kusunoki M, 2000).The present study showed that the administration of a cafeteria diet for four weeks, in rats, produced obesity-like conditions, with increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, and serum lipid levels. Treatment with AETC leave at a dose of 200mg/kg/day & 400 mg/kg/day, significantly reduced the increase in body weight induced by a cafeteria diet — a clear sign of an anti-obesity effect. Obese rats because of overweight loss the ability to stand on the rotated rod in the Rota rod apparatus and exhibit the low locomotor activity in Actophotometer. Weight reduction by the AETC leave treatment normalizes the locomotor activity as well as improves the capacity to stand on rotated rod. Significant increase in serum lipids, such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) is observed in obese animals. Treatment with AETC leave caused significant changes in the blood parameters, including decreased levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG, but increased HDL-C. Various preclinical studies stated that herbal extract containing Flavonoid; tannins have good anti-obesity effect (Gamal A. Mohamed, Sabrin R.M, 2014). Lipid lowering effect of AETC leave may be due to presence of above said active  principles, which was confirmed by photochemical investigation. The extract produced a significant decrease in the liver and parametrial adipose tissue weight in comparison with the CD control group. Our extract prevents the accumulation of fat in liver and adipose tissue that’s why it reduced the weight of adipose as well as liver weight.

Table 4:
Effect of AETC leaves on body weight (gm) in cafeteria diet animals (n=6)



Weak


Group-I


Group-II


Group-III


Group-IV


Group-V


0





180.5±1.780


 


 


 

 


184.6±6.118 ns


183.7±4.031ns


179.7±0.9632ns


181.7±4.667ns

 


1


188.5±0.4625

 


201.5±1.454***

 


193.6±0.5995***

 


198.8±0.6636ns

 


196.9±0.6914*

 


2


191.7±1.308

 


212.7±3.820***

 


194.6±0.4083**

 


208.1±2.295ns

 


200.2±1.110*

 


3


193.4±0.7058

 


227.1±3.099***

 


196.8±0.9353***

 


220.3±2.679ns

 


209.2±2.556**

 

Various rats of obesity have been used to emulate obesity-like condition in humans, in order to develop effective anti-obesity treatments. Among the animal models of obesity, rats that are fed a cafeteria diet are considered useful; a high percentage of fat in their diet is considered to be an important factor in the development of obesity, leading to the accumulation of body fat (Kusunoki M, 2000).The present study showed that the administration of a cafeteria diet for four weeks, in rats, produced obesity-like conditions, with increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, and serum lipid levels. Treatment with AETC leave at a dose of 200mg/kg/day & 400 mg/kg/day, significantly reduced the increase in body weight induced by a cafeteria diet — a clear sign of an anti-obesity effect.

CONCLUSION
After examination of bio-chemical, behavioral and adipose tissue parameters in normal and treated groups indicates that Termenalia catappa aqueous extract of leaves have anti-obesity activity. This anti-obesity is may be due to presence of Phytochemicals like alkaloids, glycosides, Flavonoid , tannins and phenolic compounds in aqueous Termenalia catappa leaves extracts.However, Further studies are required to isolate and characterize the phytoconstituents responsible for the anti-obese activity and confirm the anti-obesity mechanism.

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