DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE APPLICATION OF MICROSPHERES

Pharma Admission

pharma admission

 

APPLICATIONS: [38],[39],[40],[41]
New applications for microspheres are discovered every day, below are just a few:

Assay - Coated microspheres provide measuring tool in biology and drug research.

Buoyancy - Hollow microspheres are used to decrease material density in plastics (Glass  and polymer).

Ceramics - Used to create porous ceramics used for filters (microspheres melt out during firing, Polyethylene Microspheres).

Cosmetics - Opaque microspheres used to hide wrinkles and give color, Clear   microspheres provide "smooth ball bearing" texture during application (Polyethylene Microspheres).

Drug delivery - As miniature time release drug capsule made of, for example, polymers. A similar use is as outer shells of micro bubble contrast agents used in  contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

Electronic paper - Dual Functional microspheres used in Gyricon electronic paper.

Personal Care - Added to Scrubs as an exfoliating age(Polyethylene Microspheres).

Spacers - Used in LCD screens to provide a precision spacing between glass panels (glass).

Standards - monodispere microspheres are used to calibrate particle sieves, and particle counting apparatus.

Retroreflective - added on top of paint used on roads and signs to increase night visibility of road stripes and signs (glass).

Thickening Agent - Added to paints and epoxies to modify viscosity and buoyancy.

Cancer research: [38]
One useful discovery made from the research of microspheres is a way to fight cancer on amolecular level. According to Wake Oncologists, "SIR-Spheres microspheres are radioactivepolymer spheres that emit beta radiation. Physicians insert a catheter through the groin intothe hepatic artery and deliver millions of microspheres directly to the tumor site. The SIR Spheresmicrospheres target the liver tumors and spare healthy liver tissue. Cancermicrosphere technology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist toformulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range sideeffects. A major disadvantage of anticancer drugs is their lack of selectivity for tumor tissue alone, which causes severe side effects and results in low cure rates. Thus, it is very difficult to target abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Microsphere technology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action, without causing significant side effects on normal cells.

Recent Applications of Controlled Release Microspheres

Controlled-Release Vaccine
Vaccination has been highly successful for controlling or even eradicating many importanttypes of infectious diseases, and new or improved vaccines are being heavily investigated forAIDS,hepatitis B, anthrax, and SARS. A frequent problem is the need for repeatedadministrations—usually KYEKYOON “KEVIN” KIM AND DANIEL W. PACKinjections—to ensure long-lasting immunity. For example, the current anthrax vaccinerequires a series of boosters at 2 and 4 weeks, and at 6, 12, and 18 months following the firstinoculation; and the Recombivax H-Brvaccine for hepatitis B—required for most healthcareworkers in the U.S.—is administered in three injections at 0, 1, and 6 months. The need formultiple injections poses a serious problem for patients in developing countries with limited access to medical care, where awareness is lacking, or for transient populations.


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