CONCEPT AND PHILOSOPHY OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTS

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IV.            Roof

8.      Recognization
It is the lastand final element in the entire system it shoud be provided for both suggestions and achievements for teams as well as individuals. Employees strive to receive recognition for themselves and their teams.

Detecting and recognizing contributors is the most important job a supervisor. As people are recognized, there can be huge changes in self-esteem, productivity , quality and the amount if effort exhorted to the task at hand. Recognition comes in its form when it is immediately following an action that an employee has performed.

Recognition comes in different ways, places and time such as, ways-
It can be by way of personal letter from top management.

Also by award banquets, plaques, trophies etc.

Places- good performers can be recognized in front of departments, on performance boards and also in front of top management.

Time - recognition given at any time like in staff meeting, annual award banquets, etc.

We can conclude that these eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM.

In an organization and that the supervisor is a huge part in developing these elements in the work place. without these elements, the business entities can not be successful TQM implementers.

It is very clear from the above that TQM without involving integrity, ethics and trust would be great remiss, in fact it would be incomplete.

Training is the key by which the organization creates a TQM environment.

Leadership and teamwork go hand in hand.

Lack of communication between  departments, supervisors and employees create a burden on the whole TQM process.

Last but not least, recognition should be given to people who contributed to the overall completed task.

Hence, lead by example, train employees to provide a quality product, creats an environment where there is no fear to share knowledge, and credit where credit is due.

The primary elements in the Deming Application Prize and the checklist used to evaluate senior executives are listed below:

(1) Policies
- Quality and quality control policies and their place in overall business management;
- Clarity of policies (targets and priority measures);
- Methods and processes for establishing policies;
- Relationship of policies to long- and short-term plans;
- Communication (deployment) of policies, and grasp and management of achieving policies;
- Executives’ and managers’ leadership.

(2) Organization
- Appropriateness of the organizational structure for quality control and status of employee involvement;
- Clarity of authority and responsibility;
- Status of interdepartmental coordination;
- Status of committee and project team activities;
- Status of staff activities;
- Relationships with associated companies (group companies, vendors, contractors, sales companies, etc.).

(3) Information
- Appropriateness of collecting and communicating external information;
- Appropriateness of collecting and communicating internal information;
- Status of applying statistical techniques to data analysis;
- Appropriateness of information retention;
- Status of utilizing information;
- Status of utilizing computers for data processing.

(4) Standardization
- Appropriateness of the system of standards;
- Procedures for establishing, revising and abolishing standards;
- Actual performance in establishing, revising and abolishing standards;
- Contents of standards;
- Status of utilizing and adhering to standards;
- Status of systematically developing, accumulating, handing down and utilizing technologies.

(5) Human resources
- Education and training plans and their development and results utilization;
- Status of quality consciousness, consciousness of managing jobs, and understanding of quality control;
- Status of supporting and motivating self-development and self-realization;
- Status of understanding and utilizing statistical concepts and methods;
- Status of QC circle development and improvement suggestions;
- Status of supporting the development of human resources in associated companies.

(6) Quality assurance
- Status of managing the quality assurance activities system;
- Status of quality control diagnosis;
- Status of new product and technology development (including quality analysis, quality deployment and design review activities);
- Status of process control;
- Status of process analysis and process improvement (including process capability studies);
- Status of inspection, quality evaluation and quality audit;
- Status of managing production equipment, measuring instruments and vendors;
- Status of packaging, storage, transportation, sales and service activities;
- Grasping and responding to product usage, disposal, recovery and recycling;
- Status of quality assurance;
- Grasping of the status of customer satisfaction;
- Status of assuring reliability, safety, product liability and environmental protection.

(7) Maintenance
- Rotation of management (PDCA) cycle control activities;
- Methods for determining control items and their levels;
- In-control situations (status of utilizing control charts and other tools);
- Status of taking temporary and permanent measures;
- Status of operating management systems for cost, quantity, delivery, etc.;
- Relationship of quality assurance system to other operating management systems.

(8) Improvement
- Methods of selecting themes (important activities, problems and priority issues);
- Linkage of analytical methods and intrinsic technology;
- Status of utilizing statistical methods for analysis;
- Utilization of analysis results;
- Status of confirming improvement results and transferring them to maintenance/control activities;
- Contribution of QC circle activities.

(9) Effects
- Tangible effects (such as quality, delivery, cost, profit, safety and environment);
- Intangible effects;
- Methods for measuring and grasping effects;
- Customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction;
- Influence on associated companies;
- Influence on local and international communities.

(l0) Future plans
- Status of grasping current situations;
- Future plans for improving problems;
- Projection of changes in social environment and customer requirements and future plans based on these projected changes;
- Relationships among management philosophy, vision and long-term plans;
- Continuity of quality control activities;
- Concreteness of future plans.4

5.      THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM
What characterizes TQM is the focus on identifying root causes of quality problems and correcting them at the source, as opposed to inspecting the product after it has been made. Not only does TQM encompass the entire organization, but it stresses that quality is customer driven.

(a)   quality circle
Some organisations have successfully implemented the use of quality circles as part of an ongoing improvement programme. Others have experimented with quality circles with the best intentions and faced several obstacles, but what is true is that this type of participatory management brings several benefits to all concerned.

Objectives:
1.      TO improve the quality and productivity and thus contribute to the improvements and development of the enterprise.
2.      To reduce the cost of products or services by waste reduction, safety, effective utilization of resources, avoiding unnecessary errors and defects.
3.      To identify and solve work related problems that interferes with production.
4.      To tap the creative intelligence of the persons working in the organization and to make full use of the human resources.
5.      To permit employees to develop and use greater amount of knowledge and skill and motivate them to apply to a wide range of challenging tasks.
6.      To improve communication within the organization.
7.      To increase employees loyalty and commitment to the organization and its goals.
8.      To respect humanity and build a happy bright work place environment which is meaningful to work in.
9.      To enrich human capability, confidence, moral, attitude and relationship.
10.  To safety the human needs of recognition , achievement and self-development.

Advantage:
1.      Promote high level of productivity and quality-mindedness.
2.      Self and mutual development of employees.
3.      Creating team spirit and unity of action.
4.      Increased motivation, job satisfaction and pride in their work.
5.      Reduced absenteeism and labour turnover.
6.      Developing sense of belongingness towards a particular organization.
7.      Waste reduction.
8.      Cost reduction.
9.      Improved communication.
10.  Safety improvement.
11.  Increase utilization of human resource potential.
12.  Enhancement in consciousness and moral of employees through re cognition of their activities.
13.  Leadership development.
14.  Trained staff.7

Function of quality circle:
Quality circles are also commonly known as work improvement or quality teams, but no matter the name, their functions share similar characteristics. Generally, the quality circle is a small group of employees who voluntarily meet at regular times to identify, analyse and solve quality and other problems in their working environment. Quality circles can recommend and implement improvement strategies and be a useful reservoir for the generation of new ideas.7

Internal Reform Committees (IRC’s):
Internal Reform Committees (IRC’s) are the public service’s tailor-made answer to quality circles. IRC’s were introduced into the public service to encourage full employee participation in home-grown reform initiatives to meet the needs of the public service.

The main objectives were to:
*?Encourage a team culture and team environment;
*?Encourage the flow of new ideas;
*?Improve customer relations and service delivery;
*?Improve levels of communication;
*?Improve operational efficiency; and
*?Create problem prevention attitudes.7

(b)Customer Focus
The first, and overriding, feature of TQM is the company’s focus on its customers.

Quality is defined as meeting or exceeding customer expectations. The goal is to first identify and then meet customer needs. TQM recognizes that a perfectly produced product has little value if it is not what the customer wants. Therefore, we can say that quality is customer driven. However, it is not always easy to determine what the customer wants, because tastes and preferences change. Also, customer expectations often vary from one customer to the next.

There exists in each department, each office, each home, a series of customers,  suppliers and customer supplier interfaces. These are “the quality chains”, and they can be broken at any point by one person or one piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of the customer, internal or external. The failure usually finds its way to the interface between the organisation and its external customer, or in the worst case, actually to the external customer.

(c ) Continuous Improvement
Another concept of the TQM philosophy is the focus on continuous improvement. raditional systems operated on the assumption that once a company achieved a certain level of quality, it was successful and needed no further improvements.

Continuous improvement, called kaizen by the Japanese, requires that the company continually strive to be better through learning and problem solving. Because we can never achieve perfection, we must always evaluate our performance and take measures to improve it. Now let’s look at two approaches that can help companies with continuous improvement: the plan –do– study – act (PDSA) cycle and benchmarking.5,1

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