CONCEPT AND PHILOSOPHY OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTS
Amit A. Patel
Seth G. L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA.
Quality is critical in achieving competitiveness in domestic and global market. Quality is a journey starting from design, to conformance, and ends at better performance. This process considers quality as a ‘never ending’ improvement. The success of TQM mainly depends on the achievement of internal as well as external customer satisfaction. Internal customer satisfaction is a prerequisite to achieve external customer satisfaction.
If Employees are to identify and correct quality problems, then they have to use some quality tools. Quality circles are also known as work improvement or quality teams. the quality circle is a small group of employees who voluntarily meet at regular times to identify, analyse and solve quality and other problems in their working environment.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1553
In the present competitive environment, survival of the organizations depends on their ability to continuously improve as per the expectations of the customers. Quality is critical in achieving competitiveness in domestic and global market.
Though there are wide variety of concepts surrounding the term “quality”, all writers agree that quality is one of the important “critical success factors” to achieve competitiveness in organizations. Quality has expanded beyond the concept of “customer satisfaction with products and services” to the concept of “creation of worth for all stakeholders”.
In this context, overall business excellence is replacing the narrow objective of meeting customer specifications to improving the performance of the whole system. This includes array of issues, including environment, occupational health and safety, and social responsibility.6
The success of TQM mainly depends on the achievement of internal as well as external customer satisfaction. Internal customer satisfaction is a prerequisite to achieve external customer satisfaction.
Quality is a journey starting from design, to conformance, and ends at better performance. This process considers quality as a ‘never ending’ improvement (Gitlow, 1989).
Quality of design → conformance → performance
a. Quality of design: This is the degree of achievement of purpose by the design itself. It starts with market research, sales feedback analysis and continues the development of a product/service that would satisfy the customer.
b. Quality of conformance: It is the extent to which a firm, its processes and its suppliers are able to surpass the design specifications required to serve the needs of the customer.
c. Quality of performance: This identifies the extent to which customer needs are satisfied by performance of a product/service over a period of time.6
Total - The responsibility for achieving Quality rests with everyone a business no matter what their function. It recognises the necessity to develop processes across the business, that together lead to the reliable delivery of exact, agreed customer requirements. This will achieve the most competitive cost position and a higher return on investment.
Quality - The prime task of any business is to understand the needs of the customer, then deliver the product or service at the agreed time, place and price, on every occasion. This will retain current customers, assist in acquiring new ones and lead to a subsequent increase in market share.
Management - Top management lead the drive to achieve quality for customers, by communicating the business vision and values to all employees; ensuring the right business processes are in place; introducing and maintaining a continuous improvement culture. To gain an understanding of TQM, it is worth looking at how it developed and the impact of some of the main management "gurus" over the years.3
2. DEFINiTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Total quality management is a business philosophy that seeks to encourage both individual and collective responsibility to quality at every stage of the production process from initial design and conception through to after sales services.
TQM is a management philosophy, a paradigm, a continuous improvement approach to doing business through a new management model. The TQM philosophy evolved from the continuous improvement philosophy with a focus on quality as the main dimension of business.
TQM is a comprehensive management system which:
♦ Focuses on meeting owners’/customers’ needs by providing quality services at a cost that provides value to the owners/customers
♦ Is driven by the quest for continuous improvement in all operations
♦ Recognizes that everyone in the organization has owners/customers who are either internal or external
♦ Views an organization as an internal system with a common aim rather than as individual departments acting to maximize their own performances
♦ Focuses on the way tasks are accomplished rather than simply what tasks are accomplished
♦ Emphasizes teamwork and a high level of participation by all employees.6
3. CONCEPTS FROM QUALITY GURUS
(a) Deming’s approach.
Deming had made a highly significant contribution during the war in increasing America's industrial efficiency.
After the war was won, although well received by engineers and scientists, top management did not respond to his ideas. Industry went back to the old established ways of trying to meet consumer market opportunities.
In Japan however Deming found a much more receptive audience, his ideas once implemented led during the 80s, to American business being battered by Japan's superior industrial practices.
In order to compete and survive, the rest of the world were forced to take his ideas seriously, adopting "Japanese methods" such as TQM and Lean Manufacturing.
Deming proposed 14 points as the principles of TQM (Deming, 1986), which are listed below:
PRINCIPLE 1: "Create a constancy of purpose"
· Define the problems of today and the future
· Allocate resources for long-term planning
· Allocate resources for research and education
· Constantly improve design of product and service
PRINCIPLE 2: "Adopt the new philosophy"
· Quality costs less not more
· Superstitious learning
· The call for major change
· Stop looking at your competition and look at your customer instead
PRINCIPLE 3: "Cease dependence on inspection"
· Quality does not come from inspection
· Mass inspection is unreliable, costly, and ineffective
· Inspectors fail to agree with each other
· Inspection should be used to collect data for process control
PRINCIPLE 4: "Do not award business basedon price tag alone"
· Price alone has no meaning
· Change focus from lowest initial cost to lowest total cost
· Work toward a single source and long term relationship
· Establish a mutual confidence and aid between purchaser and vendor
PRINCIPLE 5 : "Improve constantly the system of production and service"
· Quality starts with the intent of management
· Teamwork in design is fundamental
· Forever, continue to reduce waste and continue to improve
· Putting out fires is not improvement of the process
PRINCIPLE 6 : "Institute training"
· Management must provide the setting where workers can be successful
· Management must remove the inhibitors to good work
· Management needs an appreciation of variation
· This is management's new role.
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