BEATING CANCER WITH NATURAL PLANT SOURCES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mohd. Yaqub khan*, Poonam gupta, Vikaskumar verma, Ashish pathak
Saroj Institute of Technology & Management,
Ahimamau, P.O. Arjunganj, Sultanpur Road, Lucknow-226002,
Uttar Pradesh, India
*khanishaan16@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Medicinal plants continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. This is particularly true in developing countries, where herbal medicine has a long and uninterrupted history of use. Continuous usage of herbal medicine by a large proportion of the population in the developing countries is largely due to the high cost of Western pharmaceuticals and healthcare. Every year, millions of people are diagnosed with cancer, leading to death in a majority of the cases. Specific part of it is formulated into suitable preparations compressed as tablets or made into pills, used to make infusions, extracts, tinctures, etc., or mixed with excipients to make lotions, ointments, creams, etc. Few herbal drugs are subject to legislative control. The plant based drug discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer agents including plants (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan and irinotecan). Beside this there is numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can used in anticancer therapy. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin, 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol, catechins, eugenol, indole-3-carbinol, limonene, beta carotene, and dietary fiber. In this review active principle derived from natural products are offering a great opportunity to evaluate not only totally new chemical classes of anticancer agents.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1736

INTRODUCTION
The history of plant as source of anti-cancer agents started in earnest in the 1950s with the discovery and development of the vinca alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) and the isolation of the cytotoxic podophyllotoxins. Vinca alkaloid was responsible for an increase in the cure rates for Hodgkin’s disease and some forms of leukemia. Vincristine inhibits microtubule assembly, inducing tubulin selfassociation into coiled spiral aggregates. Etoposide is an epipodophyllotoxin, derived from the mandrake plant Podophyllum peltatum and the wild chervil Podophyllum emodi. It has also significant activity against small-cell lung carcinoma. Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor, stabilizing enzyme–DNA cleavable complexes leading to DNA breaks. The taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel has been show antitumor activity against breast, ovarian and other tumor types in the clinic trial. Paclitaxel stabilizes microtubules and leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, the camptothecin derivatives irinotecan and topotecan, have shown significant antitumor activity against colorectal and ovarian cancer respectively. These compounds were initially obtained from the bark and wood of Nyssacea Camptotheca accuminata and act by inhibiting topoisomerase I. The taxanes and the camptothecins are presently approved for human use in various countries.[1]

The Rate of Success
The use of non-toxic natural therapies has achieved huge successes over the past few decades. Extensive studies have proven them to have an edge over conventional therapies. Many of the alternative cancer hospitals are found in Mexico. For example, Dr Contreras of the Oasis Hospital reported that his 5-year survival rate for prostate cancer is 83% when using natural treatment compared to 73% for conventional treatment. At the American Metabolic Institute, renowned scientist Dr Geronimo Rubio reported success rates in reversing stage III and IV cancers from 65 to 75%. The reversal rate for stage I and II cancers is 80%. While the 5-year survival for ending stage cancer using conventional therapy is 9% overall, alternative cancer hospitals report that theirs is more than 30%. While 4% of terminal cancer patients’ show no response to alternative treatments, the other 96% can expect some benefits after a month of treatment. There is therefore no turning back for patients who have bravely embarked on the path of alternative treatments. Clearly, the success rate of natural treatment is so much better than for many conventional cancer treatments. As such, if you or your family members have cancer, you should consider all forms of alternative treatment before deciding on which program to embark on. Today, many patients opt for combination therapy, using both conventional and alternative cancer treatments. This combined therapy is becoming more and more popular as the success rates are higher. [2]

Integrating natural and conventional therapies [3]
Human and animal studies have shown successful and amazing results when chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds are used in combination. The objectives and rationale behind combining conventional therapies with natural treatments are as follows:
1. To give a safer and more effective dose to reduce the negative side effects.
2. To help build healthy cells’ resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and increase drug accumulation in cancer cells.
3. To increase additive or synergistic cytotoxic effect with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Table 1: PLANTS USED AS ANTI-CANCER [4, 5, 6]

S.NO.

Class

Source

Family

Active Constituent

Mode Of Action

Site Of Action

1.

Vinca alkaloids

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Vinblastine and Vincristine

Inhibit the cell proliferation by

affecting the microtubular dynamics during

mitosis and this causes a characteristic block

during mitosis leading to apoptosis.

Leukemia’s, Lymphomas,

Advanced testicular cancer, breast cancer,

Lung cancer and Kaposi’s sarcoma


2.

Podophyllum

Podophyllum

peltatum Linnaeus and Podophyllum emodi

Wallich.

Berberidaceae

Podophyllotoxin, Epipodophyllotoxin


Lymphomas, bronchial

and testicular cancers.

3.

Taxanes

Taxus brevifolia Nutt.

Taxaceae

Paclitaxel

Active agents bind to the

polymerized microtubules which prevent the

normal mitosis to occur and thus they are

called anti-mitotic drugs


Metastatic, breast, Ovarian,

lung, Prostate cancer and

lymphoid malignancies

4.

Isoquinoline plant alkaloid

Hvdrastis Canadensis L.

Ranuncufaceae

Berberine

Not known

Osteosarcoma, lung, liver,

prostate and breast cancer

5.

Secondary metabolite

Colchicum autumnale

Liliaceae

Colchicine

It causes mitotic arrest

during cell cycle and thus they are

considered as potent anti-mitotic drug both

in-vitro and in-vivo.

Leukemic and solid tumors

6.

Bis-coumarin derivative

Wikstroemia indica

Thymelaeaceae

Daphnoretin

Suppression of

protein and DNA synthesis

a) Human hepatoma

Hep3B cells.

b)Suppression of protein and DNA synthesis

7.

Cytotoxic alkaloid

Camptotheca acuminate.

Combretaceae             

Camptothecin

inhibiting

DNA Topoisomerase I which plays a major

role in various DNA functions like

replication and transcription.

Epithelial ovarian cancer

,Small cell lung cancer,

Metastatic , colorectal

cancer,

Potential anti-tumor

activity both in vitro and in

vivo


8.

Soy Isoflavones.

Glycine max

Meliaceae

Diadzein and Genistein

Inhibits 3A 4-

mediated metabolism

and oxidative

metabolism.

Iinhibits ovarian

and breast cancers and also chemically induced cancers

of stomach, bladder, lung,

prostate, colon and blood.

9.

Polyphenolic compound

Curcuma longa

Gingerberace

Curcumin

Intercalates

with DNA and also causes inhibition of

Topoisomerase II activity. It is also reported

that this drug, inhibits cell growth and causes

apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

HepG2 cells

Colorectal cancer, multiple

myeloma and pancreatic

cancer.

10.

Carbazole alkaloid

Thevetia peruciana

Apocynaceae

Ellipticine

DNA intercalation

and inhibition of

topoisomerase II

Various cancer cell types

11.

Pneumotoxic furan derivative.

Ipomoeca batatas

Convolvulaceae

4-Ipomeanol

Cytochrome P-450-

mediated conversion

into DNA-binding

metabolites

Lung specific cancer in

animal models

12.

Flavone derivative

Amoora rohituka

Maliaceae

Flavopiridol

Inhibits cell cycle

progression at G1 or

G2 phase.

Colorectal, non-small cell

lung cancer, renal cell

carcinoma, non-Hodgkin’s

lymphoma, chronic

lymphocytic leukemia, and

also solid tumors.

13.

Benzoquinone alkaloid

Iridaceaelatea pallasii

Iridaceae

Irisquinone

Acts as a

chemosensitizer


Good activity in

transplantable rodent

tumors.


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