Anti-inflammatory activity oflic extract of R Methanooot of Cissampelos pareira on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

About authors:
Gourab Saha*1, Pankaja Senapati1, Narahari Sahu2, Dr. Sambit Parida3
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
2. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
3. Department of Pharma analysis, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur–2, Orissa, India.


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira (Abuta) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the carragenin-induced paw edema method. Methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ibuprofen and indomethacin.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1324

The search for new pharmacologically active agents obtained by screening natural sources and plant extracts has led to the discovery of many clinically useful drugs that play a major role in the treatment of human diseases. In India, a small proportion of wild plants have been investigated both phytochemically and pharmacologically. Cissampelos pareira Linn. (Abuta) is  a woody, climbing rainforest vine with leaves up to 30 cm long. It produces inedible, dark, grape-sized berries. It is used for stop beeding, relieves pain, reduces spasms, increases urination, lowers blood pressure, reduces fever, protects liver, prevents ulcer, reduces mucus, kills bacteria, balances menstruation, prevents convulsion. We report here on the anti- inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira using the Carragenin-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model) in male albino rats.

Materials and methods:

Healthy adult cross-breed albino male rats (150–200 g) were used in the study. The animals were kept in plastic cages (four per cage) under standardized animal house conditions with continuous access to pellet feed and tap water. Every effort was made to minimize animal suffering and to reduce the number of animals used in this study.

Plant material
The fresh plants of Cissampelos pareira were collected from the Malkangiri district of Orissa in the month of November 2009.

The air-dried root (50 g) was powdered and extracted with methanol (50–60ºC) for 6 h using the Soxhlet extraction process. The extract was subjected to vacuum distillation under reduced pressure. Here the solvent distillated off and concentrated into syrup mass then to it 5ml of concentrated HCl was added and then allow to still the mixture under reflux for 2 hours. Then kept the mixture for cooling below 5ºC for 2 hours. Then it was filtered under vacuum. Then the filtered was made alkaline pH 9 with 10% ammonia solution before addition of few drops of boiling water to the precipitate. Then allow the mixture into reflux for 2 hours. Then cooled at room temperature and filter it under vacuum. The precipitate was taken and dried properly to make the powder form.

Anti-inflammatory activity:

Carragenin-induced paw edema
Thirty five male albino rats were utilized for studying carragenin induces hind paw edema. The rats were divided into three groups. The suspension of  the drug (test as well as standard to respective groups) were administrate intramuscularly 30 min before injection of carragenin an paw volume was measured and the percentage inhibition of edema at different time interval was calculated.

Table 1: Acute anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira, indomethacin (reference drug), ibuprofen (reference drug) on Carragenin induced paw edema in male albino rats.



Edema rate (%)

1 hr

2 hr

3 hr

4 hr

5 hr




0.42 + 0.01


0.65 + 0.03


0.71 + 0.02


0.73 + 0.02


0.75 + 0.02



0.21 + 0.00


0.31 + 0.01


0.43+ 0.01


0.51 + 0.03


0.57 + 0.02




0.20 + 0.01


0.21 + 0.0


0.23 + 0.02


0.26 + 0.02


0.37 + 0.08


Extract (methanolic Cissampelos pareira)

0.19 + 0.02


0.28 + 0.02


0.49 + 0.02


0.58 + 0.03


0.61 + 0.02


The results obtained are summarized in Table 1. As shown, all the doses of methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira tested caused a significant (p < 0.05) and marked reduction in paw edema (34–42.5%) compared to control at each time point measured. Indomethacin and ibuprofen also impaired the edema formation, but this anti- inflammatory effect was much stronger (53–66%).

1.    Bhatterjee SK (2001): Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 3rd ed. Jaipur, Pointer Publisher, pp. 11
2.    Hostettmann K (1997): Strategy for the biological and chemical evaluationof plant extracts. Presented at: International Conferenceon Biodiversity and Bioresources: Conservation and Utilization,23–27 November, Thailand, abstr. no. 178.
3.    Pharmacopoeia of India, Vol. 11, 3rd edition, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Page – 64.
4.    Arregoni – mastellie, E (1977) inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, spectrum publications Inc New York Page – 119 to 120.
5.    Kavinavis, Vetricholvan T, Liango R, Jaykar B (1966) anti- inflammatory action of volatile oil of toddalin artatica, Indian J. pharm science. Page 67 to 70.
6.    Anonymous (1976): The Wealth of India. New Delhi, Council of Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR), pp. 413–414.
7.    Dhawan BN, Srimal RC (2000): Laboratory Manual for Pharmaceutical evaluation of Natural Products. Trieste, Italy, International Center For Science and High Technology, pp. 59–62.
8.    Farnsworth NR (1988): Screening plants for new medicines. In: Wilson EO, ed., Biodiversity. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, pp. 83–97.
9.    Jayaweera DMA (1982): Medicinal Used Plants in Ceylon, Part IV. Colombo, Sri Lanka, National Science Council of Sri Lanka, pp: 234–236.
10.    Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW (1962): Carrageenan induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111: 544–547.
11.    Vineagar R, Traux JF, Selph JH, Johnston PR, Vinable AH, Mckenzie RK (1987): Pathway to carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind limb of the rat: Fed Proc 6: 118–126.

Received on 18th Jun, 2012 | Published on 11th Jul, 2012



Subscribe to PharmaTutor Alerts by Email