A REVIEW ON HERBAL NANOPARTICLES
Paclitaxel: Paclitaxel is a major anticancer drug isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia Nutt. (Family- Taxaceae). But its high lattice energy results in very limited aqueous solubility (0.7- 30 ug/ml-1) limited its efficacy (Spencer et al., 1994). Thus incorporation of paclitaxel into nanoparticles enhanced its anti- tumoral activity (Breuning et al., 2008). Paclitaxel loaded nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (Fessi et al., 1989) and by sequential simplex optimization method (Dong et al., 2009). Paclitaxel nanoparticles enhance drug stability, support sustained drug release and improve bioavailability.
Quercetin: Quercetin is a flavonoid excreted from air dried plant part of Spohora japonica L. (Family- Fabaceae) mainly from bark and leaf. The antioxidant activity of Quercetin is higher than well known antioxidants like ascorbyl, trolox (Nuengchamanong et al., 2004). Apart from the antioxidant activity, it shows anticancer and antiviral activities (Formica et al., 1995; Schaab et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2005). Inspite of this wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, its use in pharmaceutical field is limited due to its low aqueous solubility and instability in physiological medium results in poor bioavailability (Prasad et al., 2004). The nano-encapsulation of Quercetin into PLA (poly-D, L-lactide) nanoparticles significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability. Quercetin loaded PLA (poly-D, L-lactide) nanoparticles have been prepared by solvent evaporation method (Kumar et al., 2010) and by using bovine serum albumin (Fang et al., 2011).
At present, herbal medicines have been getting more attention because of their potential to treat almost all diseases. However, several problems (poor solubility, poor bioavailability, low oral absorption, instability and unpredictable toxicity) associated with herbal medicines limit their use. In order to overcome such problems, “Nanotechnology” has established the attractive therapies to the pharmaceutical that will encounter the problem associated with herbal medicines. It is anticipated that the effectual and valuable relevance of the natural products and herbal remedies being applied with the nanocarrier will enhance the significance of existing drug delivery systems.
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