A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR IVABRADINE DETERMINATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Tabassum I. Hangad *, Rani S. Potawale
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
M. C. E. Society's Allana College of Pharmacy, Azam Campus ,Camp, Pune 411001.

ABSTRACT
Ivabradine is a specific heart rate lowering agent, acting by reducing the rate of pacemaker
activity in the sinoatrial node. Ivabradine is a novel heart rate lowering medicine for the symptomatic management of stable angina pectoralis and symptomatic chronic heart failure. In multicenter clinical trials, it has been proved that Ivabradine is superior to beta-blocking agents during complex therapy of chronic heart failure accompanied with its beneficial effects related to cardiac remodeling, improvement of the currency of heart failure and diminution of patients rehospitalisation. It is suggested that Ivabradine as a newer agent is a valuable perspective drug for the treatment of congestive heart failure. This review is useful for the future study for researcher involved in formulation development and quality control of Ivabradine.

This review article represents the various analytical methods which have been reported for estimation of Ivabradine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The spectrophotometric techniques and Q-absorbance ratio method were reported by the various authors. Many researchers also worked in chromatographic areas like Thin layer chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, and High performance thin layer chromatography. Ivabradine is also studied by various hyphenated techniques .We reviewed and reported almost all analytical methods with more emphasis on chromatographic mrthodsfor Ivabradine. 

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2612

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 10

Received On: 01/08/2018; Accepted On: 28/08/2018; Published On: 01/10/2018

How to cite this article: Potawale, R. and Hangad, T. 2018. A Review on Analytical Methods for Ivabradine determination in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms. PharmaTutor. 6, 10 (Oct. 2018), 26-30. DOI:https://doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i10.2018.26

INTRODUCTION
Ivabradine is a specific heart rate lowering agent, acting by reducing the rate of pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. Chemically 3-[3-({[(7S)-3,4-dimethoxybicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1, 3, 5-trien-7yl] methyl} methylamino) propyl]-1, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-7,8-dimethoxy-2H-3-benzazepin -2-One and available in the form of hydrochloride salt Ivabradine is the  new class of drugs that have the ability of slowing the depolarization slope, reducing heart rate and show the activity similar to that of β-blockers. Ivabradine is freely soluble in water, methanol, and acetonitrile. The drug is a basic drug and having pKa values≈ 8.02. (O’Neil MJ., 2006, Sulfi et al., 2006 , Seerapu et al., 2010).

An increase in heart rate  is a common occurrence in cardiac pathophysiology, particularly in heart failure, mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) following activation of the sympathetic nervous system.  Although an elevated heart rate may initially compensate for insufficient cardiac output, sustained tachycardia usually leads to adverse haemodynamic consequences. Ivabradine is a novel pharmacological agent specifically inhibiting the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker If–current (If) that underlies the rate of spontaneous diastolic depolarization in sinoatrial pacemaker cells. This drug is introduced in medical practice in the last decade is a pure heart rate-slowing agent. A large number of studies in patients with cardiovascular disease have demonstrated that heart rate is a very important and major independent risk factor for prognosis, because lowering of heart rate reduces cardiac work and diminished myocardial oxygen requirement. It was shown that ivabradine a selective inhibitor of the hyperpolarisation activated sodium channel (If) is involved in pacemaker generation and responsiveness of the sino-atrial node resulting in the heart rate reduction without negative inotropic action. Ivabradine in chronic heart failure improves diastolic function and attenuates cardiac tissue hypoxia. Long-term reduction of heart rate induced by Ivabradine reduced remodeling and preserved nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, resulting from processes triggered early after reduction of heart rate. (Sulfi et al., 2006).

Structure of Ivabradine

Fig.1 Structure of Ivabradine

Mechanism of action-
Ivabradine blocks the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel, and inhibit the If–current (If) which  reduces the cardiac pacemaker activity of the sinus node  which decreases heart rate without an effect on ventricular repolarization or myocardial contractility. Ivabradine is recommended for angina pectoralis and symptomatic chronic heart failure. Ivabradine inhibit the "funny" channel pacemaker current (If) in the sinoatrial node in a dose-dependent fashion, resulting in a lower heart rate and thus more blood to flow to the myocardium. When we use  calcium channel blockers and beta blockers for lowering heart rate, they are good in actiot but show adverse effcts due to their negative ionotropic effects. Therefore, Ivabradine is designed as a "pure" heart rate-lowering drug. It causes no serious adverse effects. (Corlanor® is a first-in-class, HCN channel blocker that lowers heart rate).

Fig.2 Mechanism of Ivabradine

Analytical methods

Chromatographic method
Table no. 1 Summary of chromatographic methods for Ivabradine


Sr.no


Title


 Method


Mobile phase


Stationary Phase


Wavelength


Ref


1


Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the estimation of Ivabradine hydrochloride in tablets.


RP-HPLC


Methanol:25mm phosphate Buffer (60:40 v/v), adjusted to pH 6.5 with orthophosphoric acid


SS Wakosil C18AR, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μm column


285 nm


Seerapu et al., 2010


2


Development and validation of stability-indicating HPTLC method for Ivabradine HCL.

 


HPTLC


Chloroform: Methanol (1:1 v/v)

 

 

 


Aluminum

Plate precoated with Silica Gel 60 F254


286 nm


Damle et al., 2012

 


3


 Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for analysis of Ivabradine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms.


RP-HPLC


 Buffer (pH-7.3), methanol and acetonitrile (55:15:30 v/v)


 C18 column (VP-ODS, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm)


-----


Rahman et al., 2012


4


Chromatographic analysis of ivabradine on polar, nonpolar and chemically modified adsorbents by HPTLC.

 


HPTLC


Aqueous (methanol–water and acetonitrile–water) and non-aqueous (methanol–acetonitrile and methanol–dimethyl sulfoxide)


High-performance TLC plates


-----


Piotr P et al., 2013


5


Determination of the related substances in Ivabradine hydrochloride and its tablets by HPLC.

 


HPLC


n-hexane and isopropanol (0.1%  triethylamine)

(60∶40)


Chiral hplc column


 286 nm


Xiaoli Y  et al ., 2011

 


6


 Development of validated RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Carvedilol and Ivabradine.


RP- HPLC


 Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer pH 3 adjusted with o-Phosphoric acid (75:25)


 Hypersil ODS C18 in isocratic mode


 

 275 nm.


Patel H et al .,2015


7


Quantitative determination and validation of Ivabradine HCL by stability indicating RP-HPLC method and spectrophotometric method in solid dosage form.


RP-HPLC


0.5% Formic Acid (pH=7.0): Acetonitrile (65: 35 v/v)


Inertsil ODS-3V [250 mm × 4.6mm] 5m column 


286 nm


Maheshwaria  S et al., 2010


8


Determination of Ivabradine hydrochloride in the human plasma and the bioequivalence study by LC-MS/MS.

 

 


LC-MS/MS


methanol: water          ( containing 5 mol·L-1ammonium formate and 0. 1% formic acid) 


METHODS C18column (150 mm × 4. 6 mm, 3. 5 μm) 


----


Yan-yan et al ., 2014


9


Validated stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method for determination of Ivabradine hydrochloride in bulk and marketed formulation: An application to kinetic study.


HPTLC


Ethyl acetate: 0.389 M ammonium acetate in methanol (1:5, v/v) as solvent system

 


Precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminuim plates (10×10 cm 100 um thickness)


287 nm


Motisariya M.H.,2013


10


Validated stability indicating chromatographic methods for determination of Ivabradine Hydrochloride in the presence of its acidic degradation Product.

 


TLC

 

 

 

 

HPLC


Methanol: chloroform: water

(8:1:1 v/v)

 

Methanol: acetonitrile: phosphate buffer pH 3 (50:40:10

v/v)


Aluminium sheet of silica gel 60 F254

 

C18 column


286 nm

 

 

 

 

230nm


Nadia M. M et al.,2016


11


Characterization of degradation products of Ivabradine by LC-HR-MS/MS: a typical case of exhibition of different degradation behavior in HCl and H2SO4 acid hydrolysis.


LC-HR-MS/MS


Ammonium Formate (10 mm, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile


Phenomenex Luna C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm) column 


286 nm


Patel et al., 2015


12


Simultaneous determination of ivabradine and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.


Tandem Mass Spectrometry


 Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry

 


 C18 column


----


MaryseFrançois-Bouchard et al.,2000

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