A REVIEW ON PLANT DERIVED NATURAL GUMS/POLYMERS IN MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING PATIENT COMPLIANCE
MPharm, Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical technology
Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin are held together for extended periods of time and sustain the effect of drug dosage forms at the site of action. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems is one of the most promising drug delivery systems with its various advantages and it has a lot of potential in formulating dosage forms for various chronic diseases in which sustained action is required. The current review provides a good insight on advantages of mucoadhesive drug delivary system, characteristics of an ideal mucoadhesive polymer, plant derived Natural mucoadhesive polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery system for better patient compliance.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1366
Bioadhesion can be defined as the process by which a natural or a synthetic polymer can adhere to a biological substrate.When the biological substrate is a mucosal layer then the phenomena is known as mucoadhesion. Various synthetic and semisynthetic polymers like Hydroxipropylmethylcellulose, Carbopol, Polygyolicacid, polylactides have been used for this purpose. 
Now a days plant based natural mucoadhesive polymers takes more interest because these natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widelyavailable.The specific application of plant-derived polymers in pharmaceutical formulations include their use in the manufacture of solid monolithic matrix systems, implants, films, beads, nanoparticles, microparticles, as well as viscous liquid formulations. Within these dosage forms, polymeric materials have fulfilled different roles such as binders, matrix formers or drug release modifiers, film coating formers, thickeners or viscosity enhancers, stabilisers, disintegrants, solubilisers, emulsifiers, suspending agents, gelling agents and mucoadhesives .
Polymers are often utilised in the design of novel drug delivery systems such as those that target delivery of the drug to a specific region in the gastrointestinal tract or in response to external stimuli to release the drug. This can be done via different mechanisms including coating of tablets with polymers having pH dependent solubilities or incorporating non-digestible polymers that are degraded by bacterial enzymes in the colon. Non-starch, linear polysaccharides are resistant to the digestive action of the gastrointestinal enzymes and retain their integrity in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Matrices manufactured from these polysaccharides therefore remain intact in the stomach and the small intestine, but once they reach the colon they are degraded by the bacterial polysaccharidases. This property makes these polysaccharides exceptionally suitable for the formulation of colon-targeted drug delivery systems.
This review discusses the use of plant-derived polymers in the formulation of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Specific reference is made to the use of natural polymers in the design of novel dosage forms such as modified release matrix type tablets and other new drug delivery systems under investigation.
Mechanism of Mucoadhesion
Mucoadhesion is a complex phenomenon which involves wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains.
Mucoadhesion has the following Mechanism:
1. Intimate contact between a bioadhesive and membrane (wetting or swelling phenomenon)
2. Penetration of the bioadhesive into the tissue or into the surface of the mucous membrane (interpenetration).
Residence time for most mucosal routes is less than an hour and typically in minutes, it can be increased by the addition of an adhesive agent in the delivery system which is useful to localize the delivery system and increases the contact time at the site of absorption. The adhesion is prolonged due to the formation of vandervaals forces, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic bonds. 
Factors affecting Mucoadhesion
The mucoadhesion of a drug carrier system to the mucous membrane depends on the below mentioned factors.
1) Polymer based factors
- Molecular weight of the polymer,
- Concentration of polymer,
- Polymer swelling factor,
- Stereo chemistry of polymer.
2) Physical factors
- pH at polymer substrate interface
- Applied strength,
- Contact time.
3) Physiological factors
- Mucin turnover rate
- Diseased state
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