Medicated Chewing Gum: A Review
About Authors: Bindi G. Chavda1 ,Vipul P. Patel2, Tushar R. Desai3,
1. Authour, R.K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham, Rajkot.
2. Assistant professor (M.Pharm), R.K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham, Rajkot.
3. Principal (Ph.D), Department of pharmacology, R.K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham, Rajkot.
Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1047
Chewing gums are mobile drug delivery systems. It is a potentially useful means of administering drugs either locally or systemically via, the oral cavity. The medicated chewing gum has through the years gained increasing acceptance as a drug delivery system. Several ingredients are now incorporated in medicated chewing gum, e.g. Fluoride for prophylaxis of dental caries, chlorhexidine as local disinfectant, nicotine for smoking cessation, aspirin as an analgesic, and caffeine as a stay alert preparation. In addition, a large number of chewing gum intended for prevention of caries, xerostomia alleviation, and vitamin/ mineral supplementation are currently available. Medicated chewing gums are solid, single dose preparations with a base consisting mainly of gums that are intended to be chewed but not swallowed. Today improved technology and extended know how have made it possible to develop and manufacture medicated chewing gum with predefined properties. Consequently today chewing gum is a convenient drug delivery system, which is appropriate for a wide range of active substances.
Chewing gum is being used worldwide since ancient times after man experienced the pleasure of chewing a variety of substance. One thousand years ago the Mayan Indians chewed tree resin from the sapodilla tree in order to clean their teeth and freshen their breath. Shortage of natural gum bases during World War II enhanced development of the synthetic gum bases that are used today. Chewing gum can be used as a convenient modified release drug delivery system. Medicated chewing gums are currently available for pain relief, smoking cessation, travel illness, and freshening of breath. In addition, a large number of chewing gum intended for prevention of caries, xerostomia alleviation and vitamin / mineral supplementation are currently available. The first commercial chewing gum “State of Maine pure spruce gum” was marketed in 1948 in the U.S.A. The first patent was filed in 1869. The gum was intended as dentifrices but it has never been marketed. The first Medicated chewing gum “Aspergum” was launched in 1928. This chewing gum is still available and contains acetylsalicylic acid. Another commercially available medicated chewing gum is dimenhydrinate – containing chewing gum for motion sickness. However, chewing gum did not gain acceptance as a reliable drug delivery system until 1978, when nicotine chewing gum became available. Today improved technology and extended know how have made it possible to develop and manufacture medicated-chewing gum with pre-defined properties. Consequently, today chewing gum is a convenient drug delivery system, which is appropriate for a wide range of active substances. Medicated chewing gum offers advantages in comparison to conventional oral mucosal and oral dosage forms both for (a) local treatment (b) systemic effect after absorption through the buccal and sublingual mucosal and from the gastrointestinal tract. Chewing gum can be retained in the oral cavity for a long period and, if the drug is readily absorbed across oral mucosa, chewing gum can provide a fast onset time for a systemic effect and the potential for avoidance of gastrointestinal and hepatic first – pass metabolism of susceptible drugs. Generally, medicated chewing gum has a good stability, the medicine can be taken easily and directly without the prerequisite of water, and if required, prompt discontinuation of medication is possible. Physiochemical properties of the drug like aqueous stability, pKa value, distribution between gum/ saliva, product properties like, composition, mass, manufacturing process and the process of chewing i.e. chewing time, chewing rate, affects the release of drugs from the medicated chewing gum. Varying the formulation and manufacturing process, chewing gum as a drug delivery system can be formulated for an extended period of time.
People worldwide have chewed on natural materials for hundreds of years. Some of the first substances used as chewing gums by early people were frankincense, mastic and the chili of the manilkara zapodilla tree. Today combinations of materials with other agents are still being used in the production of chewing gum. Frankincense is probably the most well-known resin tree, obtained from the Boswellia tree and it is frequently mentioned in the Bible. The ancient Egyptians in their religious rites also used it, while nomads in Somalia used to wear it in ponches with the hope that this resin could quench their thirst and compensate for the scarcity of water in their dry land.
Mastic is a resin taken from a tree. The word “mastic” is probably derived from the Greek “ mastichon”, which means, “ to chew” and it is also the root of the English word “ masticate”. This substance is formed from the resin contained in the bark of the mastic tree found mainly in Greece and Turkey. Greek women favored chewing mastic gum to clean their teeth and sweeten their breath. Mastic is still widely chewed today by many Greeks and in Middle East. Actually, some of the properties and uses of rubber were discovered by the Native South American long before the voyages of Columbus in 1492 and then made the knowledge available to Europe. The Indians of New England taught American colonists to quench their thirst by teaching them how to chew the gum-like resin that forms on spruce trees when its bark is cut. In the early 1800s, lumps of this spruce gum were sold in the eastern United States, making it America’s first commercial chewing gum. Sweetened paraffin wax became an acceptable alternative around 1850. Modern chewing gum evolved from chicle – based gum brought to the United States in the early 1860s. Chicle is derived from the milky juice (latex) of the sapodilla tree that grows in tropical rain forests of Central America. Paraffin, originally discovered in 1830, was an option for chewing gum base. But the search for a better material continued.
An Ohio dentist used rubber to create a gum product for jaw exercise and gum stimulation. William F. Sample was honored for his work with the first patent to manufacture chewing gum in 1869. Today, gum base is made of man-made latex and divided into two major categories: chewing and bubble gum, with the latter having more elasticity. In recent years, nonstick gum bases for chewing and bubble gums have been formulated to satisfy the needs of more consumers.