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Pharmacognosy Articles


WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus): A REVIEW

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, Gurrapu Lalitha3, Revanuru Sukanya4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of JNTUA-Otri,
3,4M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
The aim of this review is to provide information about nutritional values, what are the special considerations should take while harvesting, and world production of Watermelon fruit. Watermelon is an ancient fruit. The ancestors of the watermelon called the Tsamma melon, which are still found in the Kalahari Desert even today. This review alo gives the information about what are the constituents present in the Watermelon fruit.


REVIEW ON ANTI AGING

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Sayoni Sengupta
M.Pharm 1st Sem.
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rourkela, Orissa
bonirini@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aging is the accumulation of changes in person overtime. Aging in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, physiological and social changes.
Recent studies have revealed that certain medicinal herbs are effective in the intervention or prevention of aging and also in the eradication of age associated disorders. Herbs used in anti-aging programmes have medicinal properties which stimulate the vital organs in the body and restore their normal function. Many of them possess antioxidant properties.
Ginseng derived from the Chinese term, belongs to the genus Panax, of the family Araliaceaeby the presence of ginsenoside.
Recent studies explain the exotic role of Panax ginseng’s ginsenoside in promoting neurological health support and also state its beneficial effects in anti-aging and nerve related problems.


GREENER ITINERARY TO THWART PHARMACY - EFFLUENCE

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Raaz K Maheshwari
Department of Chemistry, SBRM PG Govt College,
Nagaur, Rajasthan
drraazgreenchemacs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The use of PPCPs is on the rise on the globe. PPCPs enter into the environment through individual human activity and as residues from manufacturing, agribusiness, veterinary use, and hospital and community use. Individuals may add PPCPs to the environment through waste excretion and bathing as well as by directly disposing of unused medications to septic tanks, sewers, or trash. Because PPCPs tend to dissolve relatively easily and don’t evaporate at normal temperatures, they often end up in soil and water bodies. Some PPCPs are broken down or processed easily by a human or animal body and/or degrade quickly in the environment. However, others do not break down or degrade easily. The likelihood or ease with which an individual substance will break down depends on its chemical makeup and the metabolic pathway of the compound. Varying concentrations of drugs found in water sources can have ill effect on the aquatic life and human health. For pharmaceutical pollution, the solution calls upon all health care sectors to participate in preventing pharmaceutical pollution. Green Pharmacy aims at zero pharmaceutical waste in our environment. It offers an opportunity for social action that will greatly benefit our environment at all levels of our society. It encourages health providers and clients to focus on healthy lifestyle and prevention to ensure their well-being through regular wellness practices. It provides education and opportunity for everyone involved with the life cycle of medicine to participate in reducing pharmaceutical pollution. With relatively simple yet firm commitments to change our habits, becoming stewards of medicine rather than consumers of medicine we effectively become part of the solution. This review paper delineates about the powerful approaches of green pharmacy that provides comprehensive solution to pharmaceutical pollution affecting much of well being on globe. Research to date points to the ubiquity of PPCPs in aquatic environments. Existing wastewater treatment facilities are inadequate and aren’t designed to remove them from the waste stream. Our current system of quantifying their toxicological effects is inadequate. Now is the time to prevent further harm to living organisms and the environment.


PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME HERBAL PLANTS IN JOS, NIGERIA

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, SolomonF. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Phytochemicals are referred to as pharmacologically active substances which are naturally present in plants. However, the effects of various plant preparations in the body when administered, is dependent on the phytochemicals present. Herbal medicine have been said to be the oldest form of medicine and have of recent even gained new momentum due to its advantages.The World Health Organization has recognized that traditional herbal plants may be useful in an integrated health care deliverysystem in several countries. But however to achieve the goal of using both herbal medicine and modern medicine paripassu, there is need for the phytochemical assessment of the plants coupled with pharmacological and toxicological investigations as well. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of some herbal plants in Jos, Nigeria. This study have unveiled the presence of various phytochemcals in the different plant extracts examined. The various phytochemicals present in the extracts includes alkaloids, saponins, tanins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. These phytochemicals are known to posses therapeutic and also physiological activity. The test have shown that the plants are useful as they contain phytochemicals capable of producing valuable pharmacological effects. However, further studies aimed at establishing the dosage in which the may produce their pharmacological effects and toxicity should be done. Studies aimed at isolating the phytochemicals and screening their individual effects will also be very useful.


HERBAL PLANTS A RELIABLE SOURCE FOR DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Though remarkable success have been achieved in the discovery and development of various drugs for the treatment and management of several ailments, there is still need for more discoveries. This is due to the reason that some of the drugs currently in use posseses one or more of the following drawbacks (i) high toxicity level (ii) increase lose of effectiveness or low efficacy (iii) costly or (iv) inaccessable. Herbs have now become the main stream for drug discovery and development. Conservative estimate have revealed that there are over 250,000 higher plant species, and only a minute proportion have been screened exhaustively for their possible therapeutic properties. Atleast, over 120 unique pharmacological substances derived from plants are currently being used as drugs in various countries in the world. Apart from the direct use of plant derivatives as therapeutic agents, they can also serve as models for the design, synthesis or semisynthesis of other therpeutic agents. In conclusion, herbs are a reliable source for more discovery and development of new drugs. The scientific community should therefore harness this resource by improving research on it.


NEED FOR EFFICACY, SAFETY, QUALITY CONTROL AND REGULATORY GUIDELINES FOR PHYTOPHARMACEUTICALS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Khandelwal Pankaj, Chirag Sudani*, Parmar Jatin, Prashant Sanghavi, Shifalee Magazine
Mahatma Gandhi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur.
*patel_chirag75@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review paper highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control and regulatory aspects of Phytopharmaceuticals. The growing use of Phytopharmaceuticals (drug and other products derived from plants) by the public is forcing moves to evaluate the health claims of these agents and to develop standards of quality and manufacture. At present there is almost no policy worth its name to regulate the procurement and sale of medicinal plants in developing countries. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.It is clear that the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines and that regulations are needed. This paper presents the element of methods of different aspects on efficacy, safety, quality control and standardization of herbal drugs and formulation. It is followed by international guidelines of WHO for manufacture quality control and evaluation of botanicals. Herbal drugs regulations in India is discussed in detail, followed by an overview of regulatory status of herbal medicine in USA, China, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Germany.


A SHORT REVIEW ON- COMMON PLANTS WITH THEIR EXTRAORDINARY BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

About Authors:
Sumana Majumdar
M.Pharm(Pharmacology)
Department of Pharmacology
NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata Group of Institution,
124 B.L. Saha Road, Kolkata –700053, West Bengal, India.
sumana.majumder03@gmail.com

Abstract
Herbal medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on some medicinally rich plants used in the treatment of diabetes worldwide. Diabetes is an important metabolic disorder and at present, approximately 18-20 million people are diabetic in India. Diabetic complications  like nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary artery disease, stroke, Peripheral vascular disease etc are affected more rapidly not in mega-city but also urban area in India. Cost of the treatment of these complications are also hiked day by day. Insulin and Oral hypoglycemic agents which are marketed for diabetes are costly than herbal medicine and it is very difficult to bear for urban people. In this paper medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects used in treatment of diabetes are discussed. These Plants are Emblica officinalis ,Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Annona squamosa, Aegle marmelos, Elephantopus scaber, Musa Paradisiaca, Andrographis Paniculata, Mangifera indica.


IN VITRO ANTITUBERCULAR SCREENING OF CERTAIN MEDICINAL PLANTS

About Authors:
Sarepaka a.*1, Dhamodaran p.1, Singh a.2, Nilani P.1, Duraiswamy B1
1Department of Pharmacognosy, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India 643001
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India 643001
*sarepaka.aparna@yahoo.in

Abstract:
World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends The Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) strategy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment which includes a course of first line as well as second line antibiotics. Unfortunately, from nearly the moment drugs became available for the treatment of TB, resistance became a problem.[1] Also, the price of these medications is high; thus poor people in the developing world have no or limited access to these treatments.[2] Herbal treatment, however, presents the potential to provide an affordable, available, culturally relevant method to manage tuberculosis. Currently, botanicals are the most competent way to bridge the gap between isolated developing cultures and modern science.[3] As botanicals attain a more prominent role in modern health care, the quality, safety and activity of these products must be assessed. The tribal medicinal men of Nilgiris district use commonly available plants for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we evaluated five such plants for their antitubercular activity in vitro, namely,Withania somnifera, Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza glabra andAsparagus racemosus, individually as well as in combination. The results revealed that the combination of these extracts have significant inhibitory effect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth.


A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL HERB: CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

About Author:
Buddhi Bal Chidi
Department of Pharmacy,
Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Institute of Medicine,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
buddhibal_chidi@iom.edu.np

Abstract:
Demand of herbal medicine had increased incredibly now a days. Medicine from part of herbal product is found highly efficacious and potent for curing diseases. These products are considered significantly for particular purpose as they show good pharmacological activities. This article gives an idea of basis of Cordyceps sinensis. It is a well known valued traditional medicine which perform nourishing tonic. To date, it is believe that it possesses potential pharmacological action on human body like Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Hyperglycaemia, Sexual dysfunction, Immunomodulating effects, Asthemia, Heart ailment, Hepatoprotective, Immunoresponse, Hyperlipidemia / Hypercholesterolemia, Anti-cancer, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti-hypertensive, Anti-spasmodic, Adaptogenic, Adreno-tonic. This article contains more generalization about O. sinesis which would be better informative.


EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA FRUIT

About Authors:
Gurvinder Pal Singh
Senior Lecturer, Department of Pharmacognosy,
Adesh Polytechnic College, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab
gp_singh352000@yahoo.com

Introduction
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells (Sies H., 1997).


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