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Pharmacognosy Articles


AFRICAN HERBAL PLANTS USED AS ANTI-MALARIAL AGENTS - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. It has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. As estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. It has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector, development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). One hundred and fifteen herbal plants from the six African countries have been captured in this article due to their local usage as antimalarial agents. The array of medicinal plants employed as antimalarial agents in Africa, unveils a promising source for the development of new and better antimalarial drugs. Scientific investigations should therefore be carried-out on them.


MEDICINAL VALUE OF CAROM SEEDS – AN OVERVIEW

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The carom seeds botanical name Trachy spermumammi belong to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), of the genus; Trachyspermum. The Umbellifers are the members of carrot or parsley family, which includes many herbs and spices such as dill, fennel, anise seed, and caraway, is an annual herbal plant growing up to 3 feet in height.  Some of the common names for the seeds are Bishop’s Weed, Ajowan, carom, Caraway and thymol seeds.etc. Carom seeds are ovoid, light brown colour seeds. They have narrow green leaves and small delicate flowers. The fruits pods of these plants are often called seeds for their seed-like appearance. The Carom plants are believed to have originated from Egypt in Middle East. They are widely grown in India, Afghanistan and Iran. These plants can be grown easily from the seeds.Well drained loam soil with a pH between 6.5 and 8.2 is ideal for their cultivation. They grow well in cold temperatures ranging from 15 °C to 25 °C. The plants can grow both in direct and partial sunlight. Relative humidity between 65% and 70 % are required for their proper growth. The umbels are harvested after they are properly matured. Harvesting is done during the later parts of winter or earlier in spring. These seeds are used as a spice in cooking. The umbels of the plant mature and produce the seeds. Ajwain is renowned for their medicinal value. Ajwain seeds are strongly pungent and aromatic in its taste.


HERBS & SPICES: TO EMBELLISH THERAPEUTICALLY FOR HEALTHCARE

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About Authors:
Priyanka Singh1, Nidhi Gauba Dhawan2, Raaz K Maheshwari*3
1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharishi Dayanand University,
 Rohtak, Haryana, India
2
Amity Institute of Environmental Sciences, Amity University, Noida, UP, India
3
Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India
*rkmgreenchemacs.jaipur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Throughout many periods of history, spices have claimed attention for their mystical properties, either through ingesting or inhaling. What mankind has done throughout time to creatively enhance or elevate the perception of his existence is a fascinating subject. Historically spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior.  
Since time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world trade, due to their varied properties and applications. We primarily depend on spices for flavor and fragrance as well as color, preservative and inherent medicinal qualities. Spices are botanically classified as fruits and vegetables. And since they no longer contain the water that makes up a significant part of the fresh produce, spices offer an even higher level of antioxidants. In addition, spices also are rich in phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, flavonoids and other phenolics, all of which possess health-promoting properties. In this article, therapeutic significance of exotic herbs and spices, due to antioxidants and various other phytochemicals occurring in them, is delineated precisely.


A REVIEW ON ANTI-HIV ACTIVITIES OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT AND ADVANTAGE OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-HIV MEDICINAL PLANTS

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About Authors:
1
Amita Pandey,2Dr. Shalini Tripathi
1
Research student of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
2
Professor of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
pandey.amita2012@gmail.com

Abstract
The AIDS pandemic is one of the most disastrous health and development issue in our world today. Tissue culturing of medicinal plants is widely used to produce active compounds for herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Natural products provide a large reservoir for screening of anti-HIV agents with novel structure and anti-viral mechanism because of their structural diversity. This work reviews in vitro micro propagation techniques and gives examples of various commercially important medicinal plants. Advantages-To produce many copies in any time of the same plants then which may be used to produce plants with better flowers, odour’s, fruits or any other properties of the plants that is beneficial to the human beings. Conclusion- HIV is the most common untreated word wide disease in now a days and Plant tissue culture is most important technique for growing new plant species in proper aseptic condition which are useful for the cure of HIV. Acknowledgement- I would like to record my gratitude to my esteemed respected guide Dr. (Prof.) ShaliniTripathi, Department of Pharmacy, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management


PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE HERBAL FORMULA "EKPO AGANWO"

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon Fidelis Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Background:
Cancer is a major global public health problem and has metamorphosed to a leading cause of death globally. Latest predictions by the Word Health Organization suggest that cancer death rate may escalate to about 15 million deaths by 2030. Though various anticancer agents have been discovered and are in use currently, they have not been able to tame the disease effectively. This has left the scientific community with the task of discovering/developing better agents with high efficacy and minimal adverse effect. There have been increased interests by both developed countries and the scientific community towards the importance of herbs as a fountainhead in the development of newer drugs, as many classes of drugs now in use contain models from natual product. Ekpo aganwo (EA) is an herbal formulation prepared from the stem bark of Khaya senegalensis and is its main constituent.
Aim:
This study was design as a preliminary assessment of the antiproliferative potential of EA.
Materials and Method:
The modified Ayinde et al., bench top assay method was employed for the study.
Result:
Methotrexate compared with control, caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle lenght throughout the study. The percentage inhibition was however highest after 72 hours, with a rate of 86.67%. EA 10 mg/ml did not produce any significant decrease in radicle growth after 48 hours, but however showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth after 72 hours of experiment. The percentage inhibition after 72 hours was 24.56%. EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml produced significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth throughout the experiment. The percentage inhbition of EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml was 28.07 - 59.65 % after 72 hours.
Conclusion: The results obtained have favoured the postulation of EA having an anticancer potential, and this have been supported by the significant antiproliferative activity it produced during the experiment.


Require faculty positions in Nirma University | Need of Bachelors and Masters Degree in Pharmacy

Nirma University is a statutory University established under the State Act and recognized by University Grants commission u/s. 2(f) of UGC Act. It has Institute of Technology, Pharmacy, Management, Science and Law catering the need of imparting education from Bachelor to Ph.D. in different fields and conducting research.

The University invites applications for the existing and future following positions:

Post: Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor


MUSK MELON: MINERALS, NUTRITIONAL VALUES

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devann2, R.Venu Priya3, P.Bharath Rathna Kumar4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of Jntua-Otri,
3Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
4Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Muskmelon (Cucumismelo L) is a representative of cucumber (Cucurbitaceous) family. Muskmelon is also known as “Nut meg” melons. The name is derived from the Romans habit of sprinkling the fruit with powdered musk to accentuate the flavour (White man and Mayhew – 1998) the word ‘Musk’ is derived from Persian literature which means “Perfume” and other word “melon” is fresh from the latinMelopepo meaning “apple-shaped melon”.

This review will give the optimum information about minerals, nutritional values of musk melon.


REVIEW ON ‘HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA’

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, Bukke Nirmala3, Katipogu Sandhyarani4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of JNTUA-Otri,
3M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
This review gives full details about the Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This crude drug has a following medicinal uses antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic. Also gives information about how to cultivate and harvest, in which conditions if we cultivates can get a high yield.


WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus): A REVIEW

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, Gurrapu Lalitha3, Revanuru Sukanya4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of JNTUA-Otri,
3,4M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
The aim of this review is to provide information about nutritional values, what are the special considerations should take while harvesting, and world production of Watermelon fruit. Watermelon is an ancient fruit. The ancestors of the watermelon called the Tsamma melon, which are still found in the Kalahari Desert even today. This review alo gives the information about what are the constituents present in the Watermelon fruit.


REVIEW ON ANTI AGING

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Sayoni Sengupta
M.Pharm 1st Sem.
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rourkela, Orissa
bonirini@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aging is the accumulation of changes in person overtime. Aging in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, physiological and social changes.
Recent studies have revealed that certain medicinal herbs are effective in the intervention or prevention of aging and also in the eradication of age associated disorders. Herbs used in anti-aging programmes have medicinal properties which stimulate the vital organs in the body and restore their normal function. Many of them possess antioxidant properties.
Ginseng derived from the Chinese term, belongs to the genus Panax, of the family Araliaceaeby the presence of ginsenoside.
Recent studies explain the exotic role of Panax ginseng’s ginsenoside in promoting neurological health support and also state its beneficial effects in anti-aging and nerve related problems.


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