Impact of Mycotoxin in the Program Cell Death / Necrosis

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research Fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical sciences,
Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, India

Genetic instability caused by secondary metabolites produced by fungus. These  mycotoxins are chemical compound which are naturally toxic to cells. Because of ability to generating ROS and RNS caused oxidative stress. Due to their toxicity properties implicate apoptosis and form cancer cell. DNA replication are going to impaired and become damage. Mycotoxins are suppressed tumor suppressing gene and convert proto-oncogene in the oncogene. In this review we explain the control exposure of mycotoxins and provides guidelines to farmers because they are directly contact to these compounds.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1099

According to WHO humans and animals may be exposed to mycotoxins through ingestion, inhalation or skin contact. Since, not much work has been carried out on skin related effects of Mycotoxin, WHO had highlighted the need for generating toxicological data on mycotoxins through dermal exposure. A mycotoxin (from Greek  (mykes, mukos) "fungus" and Latin (toxicum) "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by an organism of the fungus kingdom, including mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for fungi are aerobic (use oxygen) and are found almost everywhere in extremely small quantities due to the minute size of their spores. They consume organic matter wherever humidity and temperature are sufficient. One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins and/or the same mycotoxin as another species. Where conditions are right, fungi proliferate into colonies and mycotoxin levels become high. The reason for the production of mycotoxins is not yet known; they are neither necessary for growth nor the development of the fungi. The production of toxins is dependant on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic environments and the toxins vary greatly in their severity, depending on the organism infected and its susceptibility, metabolism, and defense mechanisms.  Some of the health effects found in animals and humans include death, identifiable diseases or health problems, weakened immune systems without specificity to a toxin, and as allergens or irritants.

Some mycotoxins are harmful to other micro-organisms such as other fungi or even bacteria; penicillin is one example. Mycotoxins can appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of crops, either by being eaten directly by humans, or by being used as livestock feed. Mycotoxins greatly resist decomposition or being broken down in digestion, so they remain in the food chain in meat and dairy products. Even temperature treatments, such as cooking and freezing, do not destroy mycotoxins.

Food-based mycotoxins were studied extensively worldwide throughout the 20th century. In Europe, statutory levels of a range of mycotoxins permitted in food and animal feed are set by a range of European directives and Commission regulations. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has regulated and enforced limits on concentrations of mycotoxins in foods and feed industries since 1985. It is through various compliance programs that the FDA monitors these industries to guarantee that mycotoxins are kept at a practical level. These compliance programs sample food products including peanuts and peanut products, tree nuts, corn and corn products, cottonseed, and milk. There is still a lack of sufficient surveillance data on some mycotoxins that occur in the U.S. which is largely due to the lack of reliable analytical methods.

Classification of mycotoxin:
Aflatoxins  are a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, such as A. flavus and A. parasitic (Martin et al.,  2001). The umbrella term aflatoxin refers to four different types of mycotoxins produced, which are B1, B2, G1, and G2. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal".  Aflatoxin B1, the most toxic, is a potent carcinogen and has been directly correlated to adverse health effects, such as liver cancer, in many animal species. Aflatoxins are largely associated with  commodities  producedin the tropics and subtropics, such as cotton, peanuts, spices, maize  and  pistachios.
Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin that comes in three secondary metabolite forms, A, B, and C. All are produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species. The three forms differ in that Ochratoxin B  is a non-chlorinated form of Ochratoxin A and that Ochratoxin C is an ethyl ester form Ochatoxin A (Bayman and Baker, 2006).  Aspergillus ochraceus is found as a contaminant of a wide range of commodities including beverages such as beer and wine. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main species found on vine fruit, which releases its toxin during the juice making process (Mateo et al., 2007). OTA has been labeled as a carcinogen and a nephrotoxin, and has been linked to tumors in the human urinary track, although research in humans is limited by confounding factors.



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