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BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM


About Author:
Prathipati padmaja
vathsalya college of pharmacy, JNTU
prathipatipadmaja@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Buccal drug delivery was introduced by Orabase1 in 1947, when gum tragacanth was mixed with dental adhesive powder to supply penicillin to the oral mucosa (Sudhakar et al., 2006). In recent years, delivery of therapeutic agents through various transmucosal routes has gained significant attention.
Buccal delivery of drugs provides an attractive alternative to the oral route of drug administration, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of dosing.  Buccal mucosa consist of stratified squamous epithelium supported by a connective tissue lamina propia (Squire and Wertz, 1996) was investigated as a site for drug delivery several decades ago and the interest in this area for the trasmucosal drug administration is still growing.


Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1620

Definition:
Buccal delivery is defined as drug administration through the mucosal membranes lining the cheeks (buccal mucosa).

The main impediment to the use of many hydrophilic macromolecular drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their inadequate and erratic oral absorption. The future challenge of pharmaceutical scientists is to develop effective nonparenteral delivery of intact proteins and peptides to the systemic circulation2.

Based on our current understanding of biochemical and physiological aspects of absorption and metabolism of many biotechnologically- produced drugs, they cannot be delivered effectively through the conventional oral route. Because after oral administration many drugs are subjected to presystemic clearance extensive in liver, which often leads to a lack of significant correlation between membrane permeability, absorption, and bioavailability (Sanders, 1990).

Difficulties associated with parenteral delivery and poor oral availability provided the impetus for exploring alternative routes for the delivery of such drugs. These include routes such as pulmonary, ocular, nasal, rectal, buccal, sublingual, vaginal, and transdermal. In absence of external stimuli to facilitate absorption, use of these alternative routes had limited success.


LITERATURE REVIEW
*  Ganesh  P, et.al., have presented the Buccal drug delivery system as the effective drug delivery system, which eliminates the problems of hepatic first pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastro-intestinal tract. This paper also discusses the evaluation of buccal drug delivery by the assessment of swelling index and bioadhesion study.

*  Patel K.V. et.al., presents Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. Key advantages and limitations related to the buccal drug delivery system has also been discussed in the review. In the development of these buccal drug delivery systems, mucoadhesion of the device is a key element. Mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in many different dosage forms in efforts to achieve systemic delivery of drugs through the buccal mucosa. Recent innovations in the dosage form development and in vivo and in vitro mucoadhesion testing methods has also been focused.

*  Navneet Verma, et.al., presented on the theories of mucoadhesion for the buccal drug delivery system. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility, an expanse of smooth muscle and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. Furthermore, films have improved patient compliance due to their small size and reduce thickness, compared for example tablets. Also presented the ideal properties of polymers and the preparation methods of films.

*  Ganesh G.N.K, et.al., Prepared buccal tablets were comparatively evaluated for their physicochemical parameters like weight variation, hardness, thickness and friability test. The surface pH, swelling index, bio-adhesive strength, in-vivo residence time are also carried out which has been important. In vitro drug release rate has been studied.

*  Asha S.John, et.al, have studied on the bilayered mucoadhesive tablets and evaluated the physcochemical properties for the buccal drug delivery like drug content, swelling study, matrix erosion, surface PH study etc, bioadhsion time etc.,

*  Rahamatullah Shaikh, et.al., presented on Mucoadhesion, which is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods.

*  John D.Smart, presents the paper on the mechanism of drug delivery via the oral mucosa. The anatomy of oral mucosa also has been presented. The buccal route has been used for many years to deliver drugs such as certain steroids that are subjected to first-pass metabolism. Further recent interest in this route has been generated with regard to the non-parenteral delivery of new peptide and protein drugs produced as a result of advances in the biotechnology.

*  Hitesh patel, prented a paper on the buccal drug delivery includes the factors affecting the drug delivery via the oral mucaosa, like molecular weight, flexibility, hydrogen-bonding capacity, cross-linking density, charge, concentration, hydration (swelling), and certain environmental factors. This paper also adds a note on the buccal mucoadhesive dosage forms like buccal films, buccal tablets, buccal gels and ointments, and buccal patches.

*   A. Puratchikody, et.al., presents the future challenges and opportunities in the buccal drug delivery system. The recent innovations and applications are well explained in this paper. The commercially available buccal mucoadhesive dosage forms are listed in this paper. The formulation design also has been explained. The pharmaceutical, physiological, and the pharmacological considerations for the formulation design are well explained.

*  Pranshu Tangri, et,al., presented a paper on the on the principles of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems based on adhesion to biological surfaces that are covered by mucus. An overview of the last decade’s discoveries on mucoadhesion and applications of mucoadhesive hydrogels as drug carriers is given. Techniques that are frequently used to study the adhesion forces and physicochemical interactions between hydrogel, mucus, and the underlying mucosa are reviewed. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems is one of the most important novel drug delivery systems with its various advantages and it has a lot of potential in formulating dosage forms for various chronic diseases.

BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Oral mucosa:

Anatomy of the oral mucosa
Light microscopy reveals several distinct patterns of maturation in the epithelium of the human oral mucosa based on various regions of the oral cavity.

Three distinctive layers of the oral mucosa are:
*  the epithelium,
*  basement membrane, and
*  connective tissues.

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