Pharmacology Aarticles

EVALUATION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Capparis Aphylla Roth. USING EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kanzaria S. H. ,  Patel D. V., Patel K.V., Gandhi T. R.
Anand Pharmacy College.
Anand, Gujarat
*sainikak@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT:
Objective: To evaluate anti-inflammatory effect of Capparis aphylla Roth. (CA) using experimental animal models. Material and method: Female Wistar rats (200 to 250gm) were randomly allocated to six groups (n=6). Except group-I (normal control), arthritis was induced in animals of all groups by injection of 0.2 ml Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (6mg/ml) on day one. Additionally Group III (Std) and Group IV–VI (CA-1, CA-2 and CA-3) received Indomethacin (100mg/kg), CA (300 mg/kg ; 240 mg/kg and 190 mg/kg) from day 1 to day 21 orally. Paw volumes of both sides (measured by plethysmography) was recorded  on day 0, 7, 14, 21. On 7th, 14th, 21stdays the severity of the secondary lesions was evaluated by measuring body weight, arthritic index, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate(ESR), Rheumatoid factor(RF), C- Reactive Protein(CRP), Albumin/Globulin(A/G) ratio, X-ray, histopathology of synovial joints. Result: Capparis Aphylla Roth. significantly prevented the freund’s adjuvant induced changes in body weight, serum A/G ratio , arthritic Index, paw edema, ESR, RF, CRP. the results were comparable with the standard drug indomethacin. Conclusion: Antiinflammatory activity of Capparis aphylla Roth. can beattributed to COX-II inhibition leading to decrease in inflammatory mediator.

A REVIEW ON DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sachin B. Khetmalas*, Pramod B. Ghanwat, Rushikesh T. Bande

Govt. college of pharmacy, Amravati,
kathora naka, Amravati(Maharashtra) 444604.
*sachin.khetmalas@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder. It is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia and when the renal threshold for glucose reabsorption is exceeded then glucose splits into the urine (glycosuria), polyuria and thus also leads to polydipsia. Insulin deficiency causes wasting through increased breakdown and reduced synthesis of proteins. In type I diabetes, there is absolute deficiency of insulin, without insulin treatment such patients die due to diabetic ketoacidosis. In type II diabetes patients having insulin resistance in it. Such patients are often obese and usually present in older patients.Various complications develop as a consequence of metabolic disorder, often over many years. Many of these are the result of blood vessels, either large (macrovascular disease) or small (microangiopathy). Microangiopathy is a distinctive feature of diabetes mellitus and particularly affects retina, kidney and peripheral nerves. Diabetes mellitus is common cause of chronic renal failure. It is associated with accumulation of osmotically active metabolites of glucose, produced by the action of aldose reductase.

PROBABLE ROLE OF ENZYMES BACE1 AND BACE2 IN FIGHTING WITH ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A NEURO CLINICAL REVIEW

About Authors:
Patel Chirag J*1, Pinkesh Patel1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Tarun Parashar3, Soniya3, Roopesh Sachan3, Gaurav Singh3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
*chirag.bangalore@gmail.com, +91-8000501871

ABSTRACT:
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurologic disease of the brain leading to the irreversible loss of neurons and the loss of intellectual abilities, including memory and reasoning, which become severe enough to impede social or occupational functioning. Alzheimer's disease is also known as simply Alzheimer’s, and Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT). During the course of the disease plaques and tangles develop within the structure of the brain. This causes brain cells to die. Patients with Alzheimer's also have a deficiency in the levels of some vital brain chemicals which are involved with the transmission of messages in the brain - neurotransmitters. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. The disease gets worse as it develops - it is a progressive disease. There is no current cure for Alzheimer's, although there are ways of slowing down its advance and helping patients with some of the symptoms. Alzheimer's is also a terminal disease - it is incurable and causes death. According the National Institute on Aging, there are estimated to be between 2.4 million and 4.5 million Americans who have Alzheimer's. β-Secretase is an aspartic-acid protease important in the formation of myelin sheaths in peripheral nerve cells. The transmembrane protein contains two active site aspartate residues in its extra cellular protein domain and may function as a dimer.

Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) also known as beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1), memapsin-2 (membrane-associated aspartic protease 2), and aspartyl protease 2 (ASP2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene.Beta-secretase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE2 gene. BACE2 is a close homolog of BACE1, a protease known to be an important enzyme involved in the cellular pathways that some believe lead to Alzheimer's disease. The aim of present article is to provide in depth knowledge about probable role of enzymes BACE1 and BACE2 in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An attempt is also made to focus on general overview of Alzheimer’sdisease.