Honey Jain, Neha Batra
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University,
The family Cyperacea includes approximately 3000 species of which about 220 species are identified as weeds and of which 42% of these weeds are in the genus Cyperus. Both purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus L.) are problem weeds in many parts of the world. Nutsedges originate from tropical and subtropical areas. . The plant produces rhizomes, tubers, basal bulbs and fibrous roots below ground, and rosettes of leaves, scapes, and umbels above ground. C. rotutdus consists of rhizome and stolon having a number of wiry roots, stolon 10-20 cm long having a number of rhizomes, crowded together on the stolons, rhizomes bluntly conical and vary in size and thickness.The rhizomes are initially white and fleshy with scaly leaves and then become fibrous, wiry, and very dark brown with age. Purple nutsedge is readily distinguished from yellow nut sedge and other sedges by its purplish brown spikelets and scaly or wiry rhizomes that often bear chains of tubers.Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are polyphenol, flavonol glycoside, alkaloid, saponins, sesquiterpenoids and essential oil. Rhizome of the plant is used in fever,arthritis,diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery ,leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, and blood disorders. Leaves and seeds are rich in volatile oil and act on digestive system. Fruits are used as carminative , diuretic tonic, stomachic. Oil is fungicidal and bactericidal.