About Authors:
T. Vishnuvaravidyadhar*, M. Sushma, R. Mohanraj, M. Babu  
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, RIPER
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University,
Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA


Geriatrics is more prone to higher risks of chronic illness and are using multiple medications in order to lead healthy life. Polypharmacy increases the risk of adverse drug events, as a result changes takes place in physiological, social, physical and functional decline in the body. These rapid physiological changes make elderly patients unable to cope with body stresses. Drug toxicity, side effects and adverse drug reactions appear more frequently and are more life-threatening in elderly patients. Tetracyclins, streptomycin, reserpine, and all barbiturates are to be contraindicated in geriatrics in order to prevent further complications. Polypharmacy is the simultaneous taking of many medications, has been well documented and is a topic of much concern for those looking to improve the quality of care for the elderly. Elderly patients often develop complicated conditions and multi-factorial health states that require extensive pharmacotherapy, sometimes surgery leaving the population at risk for exposure to drug-drug interactions, drug-food interactions and other adverse events. Previously literature states that rate of adverse events are directly proportional to number of drugs taken by the patient. To manage all these complications and to avoid polypharmacy Dose regimen should be simple and drugs should be given in combinations to improve patient compliance.

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About Authors:
Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Kanaka Durga Vadlapatla, Rini Susan Varghese, Britto Duraisingh*
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
PSG College of Pharmacy,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

The intention behind this piece of review work is to enable every single individual thoroughly understand this emerging field in Indian pharmacy that is Pharm.D, newly introduced in 2008 by the Pharmacy Council of India. It gives a direct doctorate degree after five years of college and one year internship in a hospital. This paper highlighted all the information regarding the prospectus of this field in India, colleges offering this course, scope, roles and responsibilities and feedback from student, intern and clinical pharmacist. Pharm.D is already well recognised in United States of America and majority of the gulf countries. Let’s look forward for an eye-opening future in India!!!!

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About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502

Asthma is one of the common diseases. Asthma was a term used by the ancient Greeks to describe any condition that causes shortness of breath. Early warning signs are breathing changes, sneezing, moodiness, headache, runny/stuffy nose, coughing, chin or throat itches, feeling tired, dark circles under eyes, trouble sleeping. Asthma creates an extensive burden on individuals and families, as it is more often under-diagnosed and under-treated. World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people suffer from asthma, 2, 55, 000 people died of asthma in 2005 and over 80% of Asthma deaths were reported from low and lower-middle income countries. In India, an estimated 57,000 deaths were attributed to asthma in 2004 and it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in rural India. India had an estimated 15-20 million asthmatics. It was estimated that the number of people with asthma would grow by more than 100 million by 2025.As members of the health care team, pharmacists are in an excellent position to recognize patients who are not under the care of a physician or whose asthma will poorly controlled for a variety of reasons. Particular resources are provided to improve the care of disadvantaged groups with high morbidity, including certain racial groups and those who are poorly educated, live in large cities, or are poor and to address preventable factors, such as air pollution, that trigger exacerbations of Asthma.