A STUDY ON ANTI-DIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF FRUIT EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA (CARICACEAE) LINN. IN RATS

 

fig 4.1.  Effect of ALEFCP and AQEFCP on Castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats

ALEFCP- Alcoholic extract of fruit of C. papaya
AQEFCP- Aqueous extract of fruit of C. papaya

2.Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea:
In Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea the faecal weight was found to be increased to 74% after administration of magnesium sulphate when compared to normal control animals.
Standard drug has shown significant protection in the castor oil induced diarrhoea .The percentage inhibition was found to be 59.75%.
The fruit extracts of C. papaya low, medium and high dose too have significantly prevented the castor oil induced diarrhoea. The percentage inhibition of ALEFCP was found to be 12.83% (low dose), 29.11% (medium dose), 51.91% (high dose) and the percentage inhibition of AQEFCP was found to be 17.6% (low dose), 25.28% (medium dose) and 55.55% (high dose).

Table 4.2 (i) Anti diarrhoeal activity of fruit extracts of C. papaya
Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in rats.

S.No

Animals

Faecal Weight (g)  mean± SD

Normal

Control

(vehicle)

Toxicant

Control

(magnesium

sulphate

 2
g/kg p.o)

Standard

(Loperamide

3
mg/kg po)

ALEFCP

(Low)

100
mg/kg

ALEFCP

(medium)

200
mg/kg

ALEFCP

(high)

400
mg/kg

AQEFCP

(Low)

100
mg/kg

AQEFCP

(medium)

200
mg/kg

AQEFCP

(high)

400
mg/kg

1

H

5

8.20

2.20

7.0

5.6

4.00

7.0

6.5

3.00

2

B

4.5

7.40

3.05

8.0

6.5

4.60

8.0

6.0

3.50

3

T

6

8.00

4.24

7.0

6.2

4.50

7.0

7.0

4.00

4

HB

4

9.20

2.60

8.0

6.0

4.00

7.0

6.0

4.50

5

HT

5.5

7.30

5.50

7.5

6.3

3.50

7.0

7.0

4.20

6

BT

5

9.50

3.42

8.0

6.4

4.50

7.0

6.5

4.00

mean

5

8.43

3.5

7.58

6.16

4.18

7.16

6.5

3.86

S.D

±0.70

±0.91

±1.20

±0.49

±0.32

±0.42

±0.40

±0.44

±0.53

ALEFCP - Alcoholic extract of fruit of C. papaya.

AQEFCP-Aqueous extract of fruit of C. papaya.

Table 4.2 (ii) Anti diarrhoeal activity of fruit extracts of C. papaya on
Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in rats.

Groups

Treatment &dose

Weight of stools after       4 h (g)

mean±SD

% change

1

Normal control

(5% gum acacia 10 ml/kg)

5±0.7071

——

2

Toxicant control

(Magnesium sulphate

2 g/kg p.o)

8.43 ±0.79

74% á

3

Standard

(Loperamide 3 mg/kg p.o)

3.50±1.20**

59.75â

4

ALEFCP (100 mg/kg p.o)

7.58±0.49ns

12.83%â

5

ALEFCP (200 mg/kg p.o)

6.16±0.32**

29.11%â

6

ALEFCP (400 mg/kg p.o)

4.18±0.0.42**

51.91%â

7

AQEFCP (100 mg/kg p.o)

7.16±0.40*

17.6%â

8

AQEFCP (200 mg/kg p.o)

6.5±0.44**

25.28%â

9

AQEFCP (400 mg/kg p.o)

3.86±0.53**

55.55%â

                                        F                                    41.5
One way ANOVA 
                                      df                                    46.11

ALEFCP- Alcoholic extract of fruit of C. papaya.
AQEFCP- Aqueous extract of fruit of C. papaya.
n=6 Significant at P<0.05*,P <0.01** and ns-not significant vs. control group


fig 4.2.  Effect of ALEFCP and AQEFCP on Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in rats

ALEFCP- Alcoholic extract of fruit of C. papaya.
AQEFCP - Aqueous extract of fruit of C. papaya.

5. DISCUSSION
The fruit extracts ofC. papayahave been reported to possessstomachic, digestive, carminative, diureticgalactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. During acute toxicity studies the extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) of C. papaya were found non toxic and they did not induced any toxic effect / or mortality even up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. Phytochemical studies with these fruit extracts revealed the presence ofsterols, flavonoids and triterpenes in both the extracts.
Antidiarrhoeal activity
Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries. The inhibition of experimental diarrhoea and the reduction in faecal output by a substance are the basis of the pharmacological evaluation of a potential antidiarrhoeal agent. Many antidiarrhoeals act by reducing the gastrointestinal motility and or the secretions. It is well known that ricinoleic acid, an active component of castor oil, induces changes in mucosal permeability, electrolyte transport and intestinal peristalsis, leading to hyper secretory response and diarrhoea. Ricinoleic acid causes irritation and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, leading to prostaglandin release, which causes an increase in the net secretion of water and electrolytes into the small intestine.Inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis delay castor oil induced diarrhoea. It has been shown that PG-E type causes diarrhoea in experimental animals as well as in human beings. The mechanism has been associated with duel effects on gastrointestinal motility as well as on water and electrolyte transport.PG-E 2 also inhibits the absorption of glucose, a major stimulus to the intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes.The antidiarrhoeal activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts was comparable to the standard drugs Loperamide. The antidiarrhoeal activity of flavonoids has been ascribed to their ability to inhibit intestinal motility and hydro-electrolytic secretion,which are known to be altered in this intestinal condition. In vitro and in-vivo experiments have shown that flavonoids are able to inhibit the intestinal secretary response induced by PG-E2.

On the other hand, magnesium sulphate has been reported to induce diarrhoea by increasing the volume of intestinal content through prevention from reabsorption of water. Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea has been demonstrated by its osmotic properties and cholecystokinin production. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts were also found to alleviate diarrhoea in this model. The extracts offered an increased absorption of water and electrolyte through the gastrointestinal tract. The present study indicates that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts reduced diarrhoea by increasing reabsorption of electrolytes and water or by inhibiting intestinal accumulation of fluid.

6. CONCLUSION
Ø  The preliminary phytochemical screening of both alcoholic(ALEFCP) and aqueous (AQEFCP) extracts of fruit of C. papaya revealed the presence ofsterols, flavonoids and triterpenes.
Ø  The crude extracts during their acute toxicity studies have not produced any lethal effect even upto the maximum dose level of 2000 mg/kg.
Ø  The anti diarrhoeal activity of fruit extracts (ALEFCP and AQEFCP) of C. papaya was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in rats.
Ø  The both  medium dose (200 mg/kg) and high dose (400 mg/kg) but not low dose (100 mg/kg) of the extracts have showed a significantinhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea byincreasing reabsorption of electrolytes and water and in magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea by inhibiting intestinalaccumulation of fluid in rats.

7. BIBILOGRAPHY
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