SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

 

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About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2113

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 2

Received On: 14/01/2014; Accepted On: 24/01/2014; Published On: 10/02/2014

How to cite this article: B Lal, Smoking - Hazardous to our health: ‘an overview’, 2014, 2(2), 141-146

Introduction:
In the 19th century the practice of smoking opium became common. Previously it had only been eaten, and then primarily for its medical properties. In modern era, most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes (like gold flake, four square, red & white etc.) but also hand-rolled from loose leaves and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, hookahs, bidies, vaporizers, and bongs. People had used these things in their own ways, either by chewing, drinking as a tea, or inhaling as a powder.Cigarette is a common teratogen, an agent that causes damage to the developing organism during pregnancy. Nicotine is the principal alkaloid reported (1.5%) in commercial cigarette, which rises quickly during a smoke and peak label at the completion of smoking. The rapid absorption of nicotine from cigarette smoke through the pulmonary respiration, due to the huge surface areaof the alveoli and small airways, and dissolution in the fluid in the human lung facilitates transfer across membranes. After a puff, high levels of nicotine reach the brain in just 10–20s, faster than with intravenous administration, producing rapid behavioral reinforcement[4]. The California Environmental Protection Agency (CAL/EPA) has identified tobacco smoke contain nicotine, a chemical substances which is oily, pale yellow substance and turns brown when in contact with oxygen. It can be used as an insecticide that isharmful to unborn children. Comparativelytobacco is more common drug for smoking then cannabis and opium, a highly addictive as well as poisonous. Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics, like heroin, but the use of these is very limited as they are often not commercially available. In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3.4% in 2002 [5]. In Africa, smoking is in most areas considered to be modern, and many of the strong adverse opinions that prevail in the West receive much less attention [6].A massive increase in tobacco smoking in China was more or less directly prompted by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty, China.Today Russia leads as the top consumer of tobacco followed by Indonesia, Laos, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Jordan, and China.The 2/3rd tobacco market is controlled by Britain, America and Japan.

GLOBAL EFFECT OF SMOKING
Smoking is one of the leading causes of unnecessary death globally. In the United States about 500,000 deaths per year are attributed to smoking-related diseases and a recent study estimated that as much as 1/3rd of China's male population will have significantly shortened life-spans due to this bad habit [7]. Male and female smokers lose an average of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively [8]. As compare with non-smoker, at least half of all lifelong smokers die earlier as a result of smoking [9]. The risk of dying from lung cancer before age 85 is 22.1% for a male smoker and 11.9% for a female current smoker, in the absence of competing causes of death. The corresponding estimates for lifelong nonsmokers are a 1.1% probability of dying from lung cancer before age 85 for a man of European descent, anda 0.8% probability for a woman [10]. Smoking one cigarette a day results in a risk of heart disease that is halfway between that of a smoker and a non-smoker. The non-linear dose response relationship of smoking explainsthe effect on platelet aggregation [11].

GLOBAL STATISTICS FOR SMOKING
Most tobacco smokers instigatesmoking during adolescence or early adulthood. Smoking has elements of risk-taking and rebellion, which often appeal to young people. The presence of high-status models and nobles may also encourage smoking. Study show that 9 out of 10 tobacco users start smoking before they reach 18. There are a variety of reasons for that bad habit in youth. 1 out of 8 youth boys will say that, smoking is “cool” while 2 out of 8 youth girls use it to keep them slim. Others (1 in 5) start smoking due to their smoker friends and it really influences them to do so. Globally about 0.8-1.0 lac children every day start to smoke and about half (50%) of young teens assumes to beginthis inthe age of 15 -20 years. Most of the teenager smokers believe that they have a very strong ritualistic bonding with other smokers(friends, relatives or social persons) and feelhappiness with swirl and ring chain of smoke. Smokers often experience that cigarettes helps them to get rid of stress. However, the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers. A global study estimated 1/3rd of male adult population significantly smokes. Globally, one in ten adults has been killed by smoking-related disease or causes 4 million deaths. If trend continues, 1 in 6 people will die in 2030.  Adolescent smokers report increasing levels of stress as they develop regular patterns of smoking and smoking cessation leads to reduced stress level. Far from acting as an aid for mood elevation, nicotine dependency seems to worsen stress. This is confirmed in the daily mood patterns described by smokers, with normal moods during smoking and worsening moods during small interval between cigarettes. Thus, the apparent relaxant effect of smoking only reflects the reversal of the tension and irritability that develop during nicotine depletion. Tobacco (Nicotine) causes addiction and addictive smokers need nicotine to remain feeling normal[12].Because teenagers are influenced more by their peers than by adults [13], attempts by parents, schools, and health professionals at preventing people from trying cigarettes are often ineffective.

QUIT SMOKING & IDENTIFY A SMOKER:
For those who do not smoke, these might sound like futileexplanations behind smoking.Because, they are well aware from the hazards of thatevil habit like;

  • Cigarette smoke lefts an unpleasant smell on everything around the smoker (clothes, car & home).
  • A nagging cough and discomfort breathing may bother whole day.
  • A feeling of dizziness,severe headache and occasional migraines after smoking too much cigarettes.
  • Cigarettes smoker showsflaunted yellow skin, tooth and fingernails.
  • A smoker felt lot of phlegm, which may force him to clear voice regularly and sometimes we may lose our voice in middle of a sentence.
  • Some other disorders are hypertension, anxiety, nausealingering colds and bronchitis.
  • The person, who smokes feel inadequacy, restlessness and dependence of smoking.
  • Lack of motivation as well as the energy to do anything in smoker is very common.
  • The sense of smell and tasteare diminished.
  • Above of all, there is wastage of hard earned money with our health.

Surely, the consecutivebad impacts outnumber the prosaic and speak more prudently. Also, they should provide the reasons enough to leave this dangerous habit at the earliest.

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