A REVIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSY, PRE-PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Amita Pandey1, Dr. Shalini Tripathi2
1Research scholar, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
2Professor, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
*pandey.amita2012@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Tridax procumbens L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, pre-phytochemical and pharmacological Studies. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species. The Pre-phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids (catechins and flavones), fumaric acid, fl-sitosterol, saponins and tannins. It is richly endowed with carotenoids, saponins, oleanolic acid and ions like sodium, potassium and calcium. Luteolin, glucoluteolin, quercetin and isoquercetin have been reported from its flowers. It has known for its number of pharmacological activities like hepatoprotective activity, antiinflammatory, wound healing, antidiabetic activity, hypotensive effect, immunomodulating property, bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair promotes the growth of hair, and antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The leaf juice possesses antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, as a remedy against conjunctivitis and is used also to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds insect repellent. It is also used as bioadsorbent for chromium (VI). This review focus on folk occurrence and the wide pharmacological activities of Tridax procumbens.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2121

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 4

Received On: 19/01/2014; Accepted On: 29/01/2014; Published On: 01/04/2014

How to cite this article: A Pandey, S Tripathi, A Review on Pharmacognosy, Pre-phytochemistry and Pharmacological analysis of Tridax procumbens, PharmaTutor, 2014, 2(4), 78-86

1. INTRODUCTION:
Tridax procumbens Linn. is a wild plant, found as weed throughout India.The plant is native of tropical America and naturalized in tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia. Local people knew it as “Ghamara”, in English popularly called ‘coat buttons’ and is dispensed for “Bhringraj” by some of the practitioners for hair growth in Ayurveda.

Table 1: Scientific and Biological classification of Tridax procumbens

Classification

Scientific Name

Biological Name

Kingdom

Plantae

Plants

Sub kingdom

Tracheobionta

Vascular plants

Division

Spermatophyta

-

Subdivision

Magnoliophyta

Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida

Dicotyledons

Subclass

Asteridae

-

Order

Asterales

-

Family

Asteraceae

Aster family

Genus

Tridax L

Tridax

Species

Tridax procumbens L

coat buttons

 

1.1 Morphological Description
Stems decumbent, producing roots at the nodes, up to 50 cm tall. Stems clothed in pale hairs. Leaf blades 30-60 x 15-35 mm, clothed in hairs, lateral veins 2-3 on each side of the midrib. Petioles hairy, 5-10 mm long. Flowers produced in heads about 10 x 10-12 mm. Peduncles hairy, 11-20 cm long. Heads surrounded by bracts, the outer bracts hairy, each bract about 7 x 4 mm, inner bractsglabrous, 7-8 mm long. Calyx(pappus) consists of barbed or fimbriate hairs 10-12 mm long. Corolla on the ray florets ligular, 9-10 x 4 mm, apex3-lobed. Corolla of the disk florets tubular, about 5 mm long, corollalobes about 0.5 mm long. Stamens fused to form a tube. Ovary 2-2.2 x 1 mm, densely clothed in long pale brown or golden hairs. Fruit (achene)1.6-2 mm long; pappus of slender, plumose bristles 5-6 mm long, with fine spreading hairs. Seedlings Features is not available.(Du Puy et al. 1993)

1.2 Geographical Distribution
The plant bears daisy like yellow-centered white or yellow flowers with three-toothed ray florets. The leaves are toothed and generally arrowhead-shaped. Its fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs and having a feathery, plumelike white pappus at one end.Calyx is represented by scales or reduced to pappus The plant is invasive in part because it produces so many of these achenes, up to 1500 per plant, and each achene can catch the wind in its pappus and be carried some distance. This weed can be found in fields, meadows, croplands, disturbed areas, lawns, and roadsides in areas with tropical or semi-tropical climates.

1.3 Chemical Constituents
ß-sitosterol-3-0-ß-D-xylopyranoside, Quercetin, Dexamethasone, Luteolin, Glucolutin,alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids (catechins and flavones) and tannins. It is richly endowed with carotenoids and saponins. The proximate profile shows that the plant is rich in sodium, potassium and calcium 4. Leaf of Tridax mainly contains croud proteins 26%, crude fiber 17% soluble carbohydrates 39% calcium oxide 5%, Luteolin, glucoluteolin, quercetin and isoquercetin have been reported from its flowers.Whereas the fumaric acid, fl-sitosterol and tannin has also been reported in the plant . Oleanolic acid was obtained in good amounts from Tridax and found to be a potential antidiabetic agent when tested against aglucosidase (Jahangir, et al., 2002)

1.4 Uses of Tridax plant (Functions Reported)
Tridax possesses significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, wound healing, ant diabetic activity and antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria (Vilwanathanet al.2005). The leaf juice possesses antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties and is used also to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds. Its leaves also use for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair promotes the growth of hair, insect repellent (mahanto and Chaudhary, 2005). Interestingly it also has hypotensive effect and potent immunomodulating property (Saxena and Albert, 2005). In the West Africa sub-region and tropical zone of the world, Traditional medical practitioners and the native peoples of these areas use the leaves of the plant as a remedy against conjunctivitis. It is also used as bio adsorbent for chromium (VI) is one of the highly toxic ions released into the environment through leather processing and chrome plating industries (Singanan et al.2007) (Table 2)

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