A REVIEW ON PHARM.D EDUCATION IN INDIA

 

Total number of institutes offering both Pharm.D and Pharm.D (post baccalaureate) courses:

S.No

State

Number of colleges

1

Andhra Pradesh

55

2

Gujarat

01

3

Haryana

01

4

Karnataka

28

5

Kerala

11

6

Madhya Pradesh

01

7

Maharashtra

03

8

Punjab

01

9

Tamil Nadu

17

pci.nic.in/CollegesCourses/Baccalaureate.aspx

Roles and responsibilities of a qualified Pharm.D pharmacist:

S.No

Role

Description of Activity

1.

Drug Distribution and Dispensing

Pharmacists assess legitimacy of prescriptions, eligibility for coverage, appropriateness and safety of the medication for the patient.

2.

Patient Safety

Promote rational drug therapy by conducting drug utilization reviews, identifying potential prescription-related problems such as drug-drug interactions, duplication of drugs, known allergies, under or overdosing or inappropriate therapy, Prior authorization, Monitoring therapy, Pharmacokinetic dosing of drugs, Quality Assurance programs.

3.

Clinical Program Development

Use evidence-based clinical and research data to create disease management programs. Evaluate scientific evidence in order to select appropriate drugs for a patient population through a Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee Design and conduct outcomes based research in order to help patients achieve the desired results from their drug therapy.

4.

Communication with Patients, Prescribers and Pharmacists

Helps prescribers choose drugs that will meet patient needs and qualify for coverage. Provide and educate patients about their individual prescription history.

Provide a dispensing pharmacist with a patient’s drug profile in order to identify potential adverse drug reactions or duplicate therapies.

5.

Drug Benefit Design

Determining if a formulary should be used, and whether it should be “restricted” or “open”; and the use of patient cost-sharing structure for generic, covered brand-name drugs and non-formulary drugs.

To determine if a “participating” pharmacy network should be established and what the criteria for QA would be.

To determine criteria and procedures for drug utilization.

6.

Business Management

Negotiate with manufacturers for discounts on drug prices for clients in exchange for moving market share.

Provide clients with customized clinical reporting that meet their population needs.

7.

Cost Management

Encourage prescribers to make cost effective drug choices. Identify compliance and noncompliance with prescribing guidelines; assess physician performance; identify prescribing patterns that require improvement.

Future:

The need for a mandatory national-level Pharm.D degree competency licensing examination:
While the PCI provides a uniform Pharm.D program syllabus for all pharmacy institutions in India to follow, the methods for evaluating competency of Pharm.D graduates differs across institutions. Amongst these institutions very few provide their students with a strong learning infrastructure and have their own hospitals to provide hands-on clinical training. So India needs a national level Pharm.D degree competency licensing examination which will enable all Pharm.D program graduates to practice pharmacy in India. This competency examination may be taken as soon as the student graduates with a Pharm.D degree before they register with the PCI. Passing this examination would then become mandatory for registration. There could be 2 parts to this proposed examination: theory and practical (clinical). The theory examination could be conducted by the PCI in the form of an online multiple-choice examination. The format of the licensing examination could be tailored along the lines of the NAPLEX examination with a suitable fee charged to each candidate taking it. The advantages and benefits of this system are manifold. It could provide uniform standards for Pharm.D program graduates from various universities. Modelling these examinations along the lines of the NAPLEX could provide equivalence between the Pharm.D degree earned in India and that earned in advanced pharmacy education nations like the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, etc. This would also go a long way in drastically improving the quality of the Pharm.D program in India.

Hence, a national level licensing examination would serve as the NAPLEX equivalent in India, which means that any foreign Pharm.D program graduate who decides to practice in India would be required to pass this examination.

Review desk:
As a Pharm.D-1st Year student, I strongly support this emerging course which is definitely going to embark a significant change in the upcoming years and will stand a bright chance in the field of professional practice in medicine. The profession of pharmacy is working to achieve a pervasive model and standard of care determined only by the needs of patients and populations. The evolutions in health care and pharmacy practice are presenting many new opportunities for pharmacists to perform functions and provide services not considered as traditional roles

There is limited understanding on part of the physicians, clinical staff and patients regarding the role of a clinical pharmacist. As a Pharm.D intern rotating through various care sites in a multi-speciality hospital, significant time was spent educating providers and clinical staff about the educational background, post graduate training which allows a pharmacist to operate in a unique role. But once they were comfortable with the pharmacist’s competence and clinical knowledge, he/she was allowed to have point of contact with the patient. The pharmacist is entrusted with medication therapy management, effective counselling, addressing patient barriers serving as a vital and complementary member of a multidisciplinary team.

As a practising clinical pharmacist, I wish to thank PCI panel for bringing such a wonderful course. Graduating from the second batch [2009 Pharm.D (PB)]; I invested most of my time introducing Pharm.D in the Indian clinical setting. I experienced a lot of hurdles while practising pharmacy, although i took them as constructive criticism. It definitely kick started my nurturing of skills: communication, dedication, interpersonal relationships, sound medical knowledge, and empathy towards patient. To all the budding pharmacist out there I would say “Be the change you want to see”

References:
1. Pharm.D Regulations 2008, Regulations framed under section 10 of the Pharmacy Act, 1 948 (8 of 1948): Available at: pci.nic.in/PDF-Files/PharmD-Revised-A.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2013.
2. Institutes offering Both Pharm.D and Pharm.D (Post Baccalaureate) in India: Available at: pci.nic.in/CollegesCourses/ Baccalaureate.aspx. Accessed April 25, 2013.
3. The NAPLEX, measures a candidate’s knowledge of the practice of pharmacy: Available at: nabp.net/programs/ examination/naplex/. Accessed April 25, 2013.
4. The Gazette information, policy and circulars: pci.nic.in/PolicyCirculars/Circulars.aspx
5. Scope of contemporary pharmacy practice: Roles, responsibilities, and functions of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians: japha.org/article

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES