REVIEW ON ONCOLYTIC VIRUS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Ashwini Dhusiya, Ritu Mahajan,
Mahakal Inatitute of Pharmaceutical Studies, ujjain
Madhya Pradesh
.
*ashwinidhusiya@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Oncolytic virus is a wonderful discovery of 21st century. The basic concept of Oncolytic virus was developed since 1946 but it was not produce its effect properly. Now latest technology and modern biotechnology introduce a very efficient Oncolytic virus. This is a genetically modified virus that can treat various type of cancer with fewer side effects than other treatment of cancer. It follows different mechanism of killing tumor by specifically replication; induction of tissue necrosis factor; activation of immunity and treat incurable cancer even in metastatic stage of cancer so it is also effective in leukemia. Oncolytic virus therapy is undergoing in clinical trial and shows better results.
This article covers brief knowledge of cancer, Virus and Oncolytic virus. It is helpful to understand history, mechanism, benefits and clinical data of Oncolytic virus. And a summary of marketed product ready to launch in near future.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1722

INTRODUCTION
According to ‘WHO’-

“Cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond the usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining part of the body and spread to other organs.” This process is referred to as metastasis, which is major cause of patient death.

Cancer is a generic term for a large group of disease that can affect any part of body. Other term used is malignant tumors and neoplasm.[1]

Causes of cancer-[2]

1

Sunlight


Solar radiation is responsible for over 400,000 skin cancers a year in the US alone. In particular, ultraviolet-B and C radiations are most damaging. Scientists believe that the ultraviolet component of sunlight induces permanent mutational damage to the DNA of skin cells, affecting a single gene called the p53 tumor suppressor gene. With the depletion of the protective ozone layer more ultraviolet radiation is present than ever before. Three main types of skin cancers are involved: melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

2

Chronic Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic fields are energy fields that in turn have a magnetic effect on their surroundings. They are produced by various sources one of which is electricity. EMFs are part of nature and are radiated by the human body and its organs too. They are also generated by man-made devices such as computer terminals, microwave ovens, overhead lights, electrical poles, and motors, just to name a few. Food mixers, hair dryers, and vacuum cleaners emit EMFs that are 30 to 100 times greater than the suggested safe limit. In fact, ordinary

household appliances such as cellular phones, television sets, and electrical outlets tend to generate larger cumulative EMF exposures than power lines because most people are much nearer to these appliances.

3

Ionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, consists of high-energy rays that can disrupt the electron from matter, causing genetic mutations that can lead to cancer. Radiologists have historically a higher incidence of cancer, as have other workers exposed to low-dose radiation. Xrays (or gamma rays) also emanate from fluorescent lights, computer monitors, and television screens.

4

Pesticide/Herbicide Residues

the evidence is clear that pesticides cause cancer among farmers and agricultural workers at high doses, including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Israel is one of the first countries to ban many toxic chemicals such as DDT and PCBs. In the 10 years since the ban, the rate of breast cancer deaths has declined sharply, with a mortality rate reduction of 30% in women under 44 years old. Pesticides used in the home and garden have been linked to a variety of cancers, including childhood leukemia and brain cancer.

5

Industrial Toxins

Highly toxic chemicals and heavy metals used in industries often find their way into our body. They have a tendency to accumulate in the fat cells, affecting the central nervous system, brain, and glands. Many environmental chemicals mimic the activity of estrogen once inside the body due to their close resemblance in chemical structure to estrogen; for this reason, they are also called xenoestrogens. They are now believed to contribute to the rising incidence of breast cancer and its epidemic worldwide.

6

Polluted, Chlorinated and Fluoridated Water

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the tap water of 30 million Americans contains potentially hazardous levels of lead. One out of every four public water systems has violated Federal standards for tap water. The contaminants include bacteria, radioactive particles, heavy metals, chemical residues, and industrial wastes. Ground water also contains toxic amounts of radionuclides that can cause cancer.

7

Tobacco

Smoking increases harmful free radicals and lower our immune system by suppressing the natural killer (NK) cells and IgA (Immunoglobulin A) antibodies. Tar, formed when organic compound is burned, is a leading cancer-causing compound found in tobacco. . It contains highly toxic hydrocarbons and some radioactive compounds like potassium-40 as well. These substances have been shown on a cellular basis to damage a tumor suppressor gene called p53 in lung cells, resulting in cancer

8

Hormone Therapies

A recent study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that women who took hormone replacement therapy (HRT) five years or more had an increased breast cancer risk of 1.6 to 1.85 times

9

Wrong Diet and Nutrition

Excessive intake of animal protein has been linked to increased risk of breast, colon, pancreatic, kidney, prostate, and endometrial cancer. Protein is broken down into nitrogenous waste that may be converted into carcinogenic compounds, nitrosamines and ammonium salts

10

Emotional Stress

Under emotional stress, an anti-inflammatory hormone called cortisol is secreted by the adrenal gland commanded by the brain. This hormone weakens the immune system. Chronic stress leads to reduced white blood cell activities and a decreased amount of lymphocytes, causing the thymus gland to shrink. High levels of emotional stress increase one’s susceptibility to illness.

11

Intestinal Toxicity and Digestive Impairment

The longer food stays in the intestinal tract, the more it putrefies, creating an ideal environment for bacteria to flourish, leading to a myriad of diseases including mal-absorption syndrome, inflammatory diseases, and cancer.

12

 Viruses

Human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 have been shown to cause cervical cancer. Hepatitis B virus is also linked to liver cancer

13

Blocked Detoxification Pathway

A blocked or sluggish detoxification system increases our susceptibility to cancer. Environment and lifestyle factors can lead to the body being overloaded with metabolic by-products such as drugs, smoke, chemical additives, and heavy metal

14

Cellular Oxygen Deficiency

Cancer cells can live without oxygen, while normal cells cannot. , Dr Warburg was able to show that when you put normal cells from the embryo in an environment devoid of oxygen, they will transform themselves into cancerous cells

15

 Cellular Terrain

These deadly agents and cancer only develop if the Internal terrain is compromised, such as when it is too acidic. If the internal terrain is balanced, diseases cannot take place.

16

Genetic Factors

Numerous oncogenes have also been discovered that have the ability to transform normal cells into cancer cells. Numerous external factors including aflatoxins, electromagnetic radiation (X-rays, sunlight, nuclear radiation), viruses, and hormones, can stimulate such oncogenes.

Symptoms of cancer-[3][4]

1

oral cancers-


-White patches inside the mouth.

-White spots on the tongue.

2

Skin cancer(melanoma)-

-Mole on the skin.

3

Brain-


-Brain tumors.

-Vertigo, headaches, or seizures. (at metastasizes)

4

lung or throat-

-Coughing and hoarseness.

-Coughing and shortness of breath. (at metastasizes)

5

Pancreas-

Pain by pushing against nearby nerves.

6

Liver-

-Yellowing of the skin and eyes called jaundice.

-Enlarged and cause jaundice. (at metastasizes)

7

bone-

-Painful, brittle, and break easily. (at metastasizes)

8

Spleen-

-Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes.(at metastasizes)

9

Colon-

-Constipation, diarrhea, and changes in stool size.

10

Bladder or prostate-

-More frequent or infrequent urination.

11

Other symptoms-

Fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, and unexplained weight loss.

Cancer classification-

According to Broad groups-

According to prefix and suffix [4]

s.no

Prefix

Suffix

Term

Part affected

1

Chondro

Ma

Chondroma

Cartilage

2

Erythro

Ma

Erythroma

red blood cell

3

Hemangio

Ma

Hemangio

blood vessels

4

Hepato

ma

Hepatoma

Liver

5

Lipo

Ma

Lipoma

Fat

6

Lympho

Ma

Lymphoma

white blood cell

7

Melano

Ma

Melanoma

pigment cell

8

Myelo

Ma

Myeloma

bone marrow

9

Myo

Ma

Myoma

muscle

10

Osteo

Ma

Osteoma

Bone

11

Uro

Ma

Uroma

Bladder

12

Retino

Ma

Retinoma

Eye

13

Neuro

Ma

Neuroma

Brain

14

Adeno

Ma

Adenoma

Gland

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