A REVIEW OF MITRAGYNA PARVIFOLIA (ROXB) KORTH
The putative anxiolytic-like activity of fractions namely the methanolic extract, ethyl acetate extract and the alkaloid rich fraction prepared from the stem-bark of plant has been evaluated using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and marble burying test (MBT) in mice. The extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg p.o. were employed. All the extracts increased the time spent on and the number of entries into the open arms of the EPM. This effect was comparable to that of the positive control. The Marble burying test shows the number of marbles buried by mice was decreased significantly as compared to control group. Fluoxetine was used as a standard for comparison. These results indicate that all the extract were effective in dose dependent manner and proved statistically significant at higher doses. The methanolic extract was found to satisfactory whereas the ethyl acetate extract and the alkaloid rich fractions were found to be very potent. The results indicate that the anxiolytic effects of the plant are mainly mediated via the GABAergic system18.
The ethanolic extract of the leaves has been prepared using cold maceration process. The prepared extract at concentrations of 100, 300 and 500μg/ml have been subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays namely the DPPH assay, superoxide radical scvaning assay and the reducing power assay. Ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) have been used as standards. The DPPH assay shows 87.6% of the scavanging of free radical, DPPH at 500µg/ml concentration. In the superoxide radical scavenging assay 65% of % scvanging was seen at was seen at 500µg/ml concentration. The antioxidant activity in the reducing power assay was found to increase in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, the highest antioxidant activity in all the assay procedures using M. parvifolia leaves extract was observed at the concentration of 500µg/ml21.
The analgesic activity has been studied using the ethanolic leaf extracts at doses of 100, 250 and 500mg/kg. Mice models of Eddy’s hot plate and Acetic acid induced writhing test have been employed for this study. Diclofenac sodium has been used as the standard drug for comparing the results. The extract showed moderate analgesic potential in acetic acid induced writhing test at all the test doses while the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed strong analgesic activity in hot plate method. The increase in latency time in the hot plate method was found to be dose dependent22.
The antimicrobial potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of M. parvifoliaplant has also been evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. The extract in different concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100μg/ml has been used. Various microbial strains of S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli have been used. Ciprofloxacin at concentration of 20μg/ml has been used as standard. The extract significantly inhibited S. aureus and showed some degree of inhibition against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. However negligible inhibition was observed in case of B. subtilis21.
Another study of antimicrobial activity using M. parvifolia fruit extract has also been carried out. The agar well diffusion method has been employed and activity has been performed using bacterial strains of S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Ciprofloxacin has been used as the standard. Extract at concentration of 1mg/ml failed to show any zone of inhibition16.
The methanolic extract of M. parvifolia stem bark produced significant anthelmintic activity. The result of anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract has been evaluated by observing paralysis and death time of earthworms and was found to be dose dependent. This finding proves usefulness of stem-bark as an anthelmintic drug23.
The antipyretic activity of hexane defatted methanolic extract of M. parvifolia leaves has been studied using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. A 15% solution of yeast in 0.9% saline was used for inducing fever in rodents. The various test doses employed were 125, 250 and 500mg/kg. Paracetamol was used as the standard drug. The extract showed significant reduction in body temperatures in a dose dependent manner. The effect was maintained from 30minutes to 3 hours post dosing. The results suggest that M. parvifolia contains biologically-active substances with potential values in the treatment of fever19.
Mitragyna parvifoliahas been in use since times in the folklore medicines by various tribals of India. The plant parts posses numerous medicinal properties. A number of pharmacological activities has been investigated and validated scientifically on the different parts of the plant. The acute toxicity studies prove the safety profile of the plant. Studies on the chemical profile of the plant reveal the rich alkaloidal content in it which varies quantitatively with change in geographical locations of the tree. However, these have not been individually evaluated for different pharmacological activities. This part needs a thorough investigation. In all, the studies support the usefulness of the plant in modern medication as a safe and effective treatment.
The authors are sincerely thankful to the Director, Mr. J.S. Gill and the management of Global College of Pharmacy for providing the requisite facilities.
TABLE 1 THE REPORTED OXINDOLE AND INDOLE ALKALOIDS OF MITRAGYNA PARVIFOLIA.
(c) closed E-ring alkaloids, (s) E-seco alkaloids
TABLE 2: POSSIBLE ROUTE OF BIOGENESIS OF OXINDOLE ALKALOIDS IN M. PARVIFOLIA FROM THE CORRESPONDING INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
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