A REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND SURVEY OF PHYSICIANS PRESCRIPTION HABBITS IN MANDSAUR

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About Authors:
Vishal Sharma1*, Alankar Shrivastava2
1Department of Pharmaceutics,
2Senior Lecturer Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
B.R.NAHATA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
(A SIRO Recognized by DSIR, Ministry of science & Technology, GOI)
MANDSAUR (M.P.) 458001
*vishus2010@gmail.com

Abstract
Antibiotics are chemical substances, either produced naturally by microorganisms or manufactured synthetically, that are lethal to other microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance (AR) describes the ability of a microorganism to be unaffected by (or resistant to) the effects of a particular antibiotic. A problem arises when a animal or person becomes infected with a disease-causing bacterium that harbors antibiotic resistance to the drug that would be the most suitable treatment for that infection.

India is a vast country of immense diversity.and for that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial was not same to all ,and the administration of them will either really cure or may act in opposite manner and will leads to the development os the antimicrobial resistance which is only due to the unaware use of the antibiotics.we had conducted the survey on some prescriptions of registered medicinal practitioner and find that there was an irrational use of antibiotic in our on community and this might be very serious as our survey is on the smallest level and what it may cause globally.So the use of antibiotic should be controlled.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1356

INTRODUCTION
Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent the infection. Thus the bacteria survive and continue to multiply causing more harm. Widespread use of antibiotics promotes the spread of antibiotic resistance. Bacterial susceptibility to antibacterial agents is achieved by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Resistance is defined as bacteria that are not inhibited by usually achievable systemic concentration of an agent with normal dosage schedule and/ or fall in the minimum inhibitory concentration ranges. Likewise the multiple drug resistance is defined as the resistance to two or more drugs or drug classes. Acquisition of resistance to one antibiotic conferring resistance to another antibiotic, to which the organism has not been exposed, is called cross resistance.

Antibiotics are given to human for treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases, 80% to 90% of antibiotics are used in outpatients and the remainder in hospitals. Antibiotics are appear to be used not only in excess but also inappropriately and this accounts for 20% to 50 % of all antibiotics used. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention in USA has estimated that some 50 millions of the 150 millions prescriptions every year are un necceary.

Nowadays, about 70 % of the bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one of the antibiotic agents most commonly used for treatment. Some organisms are resistant to all approved antibiotics and can only be treated with experimental and potentially toxic drugs. An alarming increase in resistance of bacteria that cause community acquired infections has also been documented, especially the Staphylococci and Pneumococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae), which are prevalent causes of disease and mortality. In a recent study, 25% of bacterial pneumonia cases were shown to be resistant to Penicillin, and an additional 25% of cases were resistant to more than one antibiotic.

Antibiotic usage resistance rates vary from one country to another. It is observed that countries with the highest per capita antibiotic consumption have the highest resistance rates. It is not only the amount of antibiotic used that select for resistance, but the number of individuals receiving the drug and the population density also matters. Giving 1000 doses of an antibiotic to one individual will have considerably less ecological effect on resistance emergence than giving those same 1000 doses to 1000 individuals. A study by Levy suggests that combination of antibiotic use and population density correlates more strongly with the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in a population than use of the antibiotic alone.

India is a vast country of immense diversity. This diversity is seen at its most extreme in people`s access to health care. The poor and marginalized sections of society, the people in remote rural regions of the country and those at risk of disease due to an unhealthy environment and inadequate nutrition, are the most affected. One of the many ways in which this inequality shows up is in the treatment of various illnesses, especially infections. Not only can the poor not afford antibiotics, they are also most affected by the rapid rise of antibiotic resistance A high level of antibiotic resistance has major consequences for society, and especially for those on the margins who have the least access to health care. It is therefore important to look at what could be promoting the rise of antibiotic resistance. One of the possible causes of this phenomenon is the inappropriate use of antibiotics.

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