RESOURCES, GUIDANCE, CONTROL AND PREVENTION FOR EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE-AN OVERVIEW

 


Fig. 8: Don’t travel with Burial team[21].

Five members of the family will be able to attend the burial. They will not travel with the burial team. The family can stand 15 feet away. A religious leader can come. The family can chose a gravestone for the family member.

Protect yourself. Protect your family. Protect your community. All burials will be safe, free, and respectful of the body and the grieving family.

Recent Advances/Research on Ebola[22].

Ebola/Marburg Research
The molecular events that affect disease transmission and human response to Ebola and Marburg viruses are poorly understood. Researchers in NIAID’s Division of Intramural Research and Vaccine Research Centre as well as NIAID-supported scientists at external institutions are studying all aspects of Ebola and Marburg viruses and how they cause disease. This includes seeking better ways to diagnose and treat Ebola and Marburg fevers, and using applied research to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics.

Ebola Vaccine Research
The Vaccine Research Centre (VRC) has developed an Ebola vaccine candidate in collaboration with Okairos, a Swiss-Italian biotech company recently acquired by GSK. The investigational vaccine, which was designed by VRC scientists, contains no infectious Ebola virus material. It is a chimpanzee adenovirus vector vaccine into which two Ebola genes have been inserted. This is a non-replicating viral vector, which means the vaccine enters a cell, delivers the gene inserts and does not replicate further. The gene inserts express a protein to which the body makes an immune response. The investigational vaccine has recently shown promise in a primate model. The VRC vaccine will enter into a phase 1 clinical trial, which could start enrolment as early as fall 2014, pending approval by the FDA. The VRC is also in discussions with governmental and non-governmental partners regarding options for advancing this candidate beyond Phase I clinical evaluation.

NIAID/GSK Experimental Ebola Vaccine Appears Safe, Prompts Immune Response

Fig. 9 NIH Phase 1 Clinical Trial Support Accelerated Development of Candidate Vaccine[22]

A 39-year-old woman, the first participant enrolled in VRC 207, receives a dose of the investigational NIAID/GSK Ebola vaccine at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda.

Additionally, NIAID’s Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases is supporting the Crucell biopharmaceutical company’s development of a multivalent Ebola/Marburg vaccine using recombinant adenovirus vector platforms. A Phase I clinical trial is planned for late 2015 or early 2016. NIAID is also funding Profectus Biosciences to develop and test a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectored vaccine against Ebolavirus. The vaccine is currently in preclinical testing to determine the most promising constructs. In addition, NIAID is working with Bavarian Nordic on development of a recombinant Marburg vaccine candidate that uses the Modified Vaccinia Ankara vector.

Investigators from NIAID’s Division of Intramural Research and Thomas Jefferson University are collaborating to develop a candidate Ebola vaccine based on the established rabies virus vaccine that has demonstrated protection against rabies and Ebola infection in animals. This research team is pursuing an inactivated version of this vaccine for human and veterinary use and a live vaccine for use in wildlife in Africa to help prevent the transmission of Ebola virus from animals to humans.

Ebola Therapeutics Research
NIAID is supporting a number of projects designed to develop Ebola treatments. For example, NIAID supported Mapp Biopharmaceutical, Inc., in its development of a monoclonal antibody “cocktail” called MB-2003, which prevents Ebolavirus infection in mice and non-human primates when administered as post-exposure prophylaxis within one to two days of Ebolavirus infection. Additionally, NIAID currently is funding development of an optimized anti-Ebola monoclonal antibody product, zMapp, which has superior efficacy compared to earlier cocktails. The zMapp, which is partially derived from MB-2003, is a cocktail of three antibodies against Ebola.

In addition, NIAID is funding BioCryst Pharmaceuticals to develop and test BCX4430, a novel nucleoside with broad spectrum antiviral activity including against Ebolavirus. To date, BCX4430 has shown efficacy in animal infection models for Ebola and Marburg viruses. A Phase I trial is expected to begin in late 2014 or early 2015. NIAID also is supporting other monoclonal antibody-based broadly-protective filovirus immunotherapeutic.

Ebola Diagnostics Research
NIAID is also supporting the development of improved diagnostics for Ebolavirus infection. For example, NIAID is funding a Lassa fever recombinant antigen diagnostic. A similar diagnostic is being designed to detect Ebolavirus infection. NIAID also is supporting development of multiplex diagnostics, microfluidics-based diagnostics and optofluidic-based diagnostics for Ebola.

CONCLUSION
The current Ebola outbreak is a dominating headline globally. The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected persons. For people who are currently trying to get through this terrible outbreak that will be of little comfort.Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemics constitute a significant public health concern in Africa and an effective vaccine is needed urgently.The review is aimed at Ebola haemorrhagic fever, its Sources, sign, symptoms, diagnosis, mode of transmission, prognosis, guidances as well as treatment and advances in Research.

REFERENCES
1. WHO Statement on the Meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee Regarding the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa, August 8, 2014. Accessed on 8/12/14.  Available www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2014/ebola-20140808/en.
2. Feldmann et al. 2005; Groseth,Feldmann& Strong 2007; Towner et al. 2008.
3. Special Pathogens Branch CDC (2008). Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever.  Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
4. Waterman, Tara (1999). Ebola Cote D'Ivoire Outbreaks. Stanford University. http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/eboci.html. Retrieved 2009.
5. Francisco Blanco-Silva, Stephanie Gruver, Young-Ju  Kim, Carol  Rizkalla, The Epidemiology of Ebola Virus in Western Lowland Gorillas and the Human Population in the Congo, May 12, 2003.
6. Isaacson M, Sureau P, Courteille G, Pattyn S R, Clinical Aspects of Ebola Virus Disease at the Ngaliema Hospital, Kinshasa, Zaire, 1976. http://www.itg.be/ebola/ebola-12.htm.
7. google.co.in
8. cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp.
9. Flemming A. Achilles heel of Ebola viral entry. Nat Rev Drug Discov, October 2011; 10 (10): 731.
10. Kuhn, Jens H, Becker, Stephan, Ebihara, Hideki. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of thefamily Filoviridae: Classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations. Archives of Virology, 2010; 155 (12): 2083–103
11. Carette JE, Raaben M, Wong AC. Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1. Nature, September 2011; 477 (7364): 340–3.
12. nairaland.com/1835035/prevention-ebola-virus. Accessed on August4, 2014.
13. Côté M, Misasi J, Ren T, Bruchez A. Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection. Nature, September 2011; 477 (7364): 344–8. 22  
14. who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/
15. Bowen, ETW, Lloyd, G, Harris. Viral hemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Preliminary studies on the etiological agent. Lancet, 1977; 309 (8011): 571–3.
16. Wamala JF, Lukwago L, Malimbo M. Ebola hemorrhagic fever  associated  with  novel  virus  strain, Uganda, 2007-2008. Emerging Infect. Dis., 2010; 16 (7): 1087–92.
17. Feldmann, HK. Molecular biology and evolution of filoviruses.  Archives of virology. Supplementum, 1993; 7: 81–100.
18. Taylor, D, Leach, R, Bruenn, J. Filoviruses are ancient and integrated into mammalian genomes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2010; 10: 193.
19. Miller EH, Obernosterer G. Ebola virus entry requires the host-programmed recognition of an intracellular receptor. EMBO Journal, March 2012; 31 (8): 1947–60.
20. Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens. Management of Hazard Group 4 viral haemorrhagic fevers and similar human infectious diseases of high consequence [internet]. Department of Health; 2012 [cited 2014 Mar 31]. 99].
21. nih.gov/health/ebola.htm.
22. niaid.nih.gov/topics/ebolamarburg/research/Pages/default.aspx

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT editor-in-chief@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES