Skip to main content

PREPARATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF ALOE VERA GEL: A REVIEW ARTICLE

Pharma courses

 

GPAT courses

 

pharma courses

 

pharma courses

 

About Author:
Sampat Kumar Kundu1*, Arnab Saha Chowdhury1, Prof.Jaydip Ray2
1BPharm, 4th Year Student,GNIPST.
2HOD of Pharmaceutics,
Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science And Technology (GNIPST, Sodepur, Kolkata).

*sampatkundu001@gmail.com

Abstract-
Aloe vera, also known as the true or medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula, Northern Africa, the Canary islands and Cape Verde. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine.Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and relief of digestiveissues such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1815

INTRODUCTION:
Aloe vera
 is a succulent plant species that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa.[1] The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies.[2][3][4][5]

Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces.[6]The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long.[6][7] Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera formsarbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.[8]

Aloe (especially aloe vera) has many uses & benefits. It...

  • helps heal minor burns, cuts & rashes
  • helps alleviate the pain of sunburn while speeding healing
  • works as a skin moisturizer
  • has anti-inflammatory properties

Most people use aloe simply by cutting off a piece of leaf and squeezing the liquid onto their skin. This works, but it wastes the inner gel, which is the most potent part of the plant. To use the gel, you'll need to "fillet" the leaves rather than merely squeezing them. The filleting process also reaps much more aloe gel/juice. When properly prepared and refrigerated, this final product can last a year or more!

First, a little terminology. Starting from the outside of the leaf and working inwards, we have the "rind", the "sap", the "mucilage" and lastly, the central core of "gel", also known as the "gel fillet".

For home uses, the rind is only good for composting. The yellow sap (also called "aloin" or latex) should be avoided when possible. It's used as an ingredient in laxatives, and can cause diarrhea and other problems if taken internally. The mucilage and gel are the most important parts of the plant for home medicinal use. Aloe should be processed within a couple of hours of harvest so as to prevent oxidation.

THE PROCESS
Begin by selecting a large, healthy outer leaf that's close to the ground. These are the oldest and most potent. (If none of the leaves are close to the ground, the plant may be too immature to harvest.) Cut close to the base of the plant at a slight angle.

Stand the leaf upright in a slightly tilted container for roughly 10 minutes. This allows much of the sap to drain out. we may not see the sap in smaller leaves. To make our task less messy, wear latex gloves like the professionals do. Lay the leaf down flat on a cutting board. Carefully use a sharp knife to cut off the leafs tip and its serrated edges all the way down both sides. Slice the inside of the leaf lengthwise so that the front and back can be separated.

Use a spoon or (for larger leaves) a butter knife to scoop out the mucilage (the slimy stuff) and the gel (the clear, solid "fillet"). Press down firmly, but lightly. Too much force may scrape out sap, which you want to avoid.

INTERNAL USE
We advise against using our fresh aloe juice internally. It's difficult to remove all of the sap, and this can have negative health consequences, particularly for pregnant women, seniors and young children. Aloe can be useful internally for specific ailments, but we recommend that the patient should consult with a naturopathic physician before undertaking this treatment.

About Aloe vera Plant
Aloe vera,
also known as the true or medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula, Northern Africa, the Canary islands and Cape Verde. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. Many scientific studies of the use of aloe vera have been undertaken, some of them conflicting. Despite these limitations, there is some preliminary evidence that Aloe vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, Sebaceous cyst, diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, amhraquinones and lectins.

Description
Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60-100 cm (24-39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.

Taxonomy and etymology
Spotted forms of Aloe vera are sometimes known as Aloe vera var. chinensis.

The species has a number of synonyms: A. barbadensis Mill., Aloe id/ca Royle, Aloe perfoliata L. var. vera and A. vulgaris Lam., and common names including Chinese Aloe, Indian Aloe, true Aloe, Barbados Aloe, burn Aloe, first aid plant. The species name vera means "true" or "genuine." Some literature identifies the white spotted form of Aloe vera as Aloe vera var. chinensis, however, the species varies widely with regard to leaf spots and it has been suggested that the spotted form of Aloe vera may be conspecific with A. tnassawana The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var, vera, and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica on the 6th of April and by Philip Miller as Aloe barbadensis some ten days after Burman in the Gardener's Dictionary.

Distribution
The natural range of Aloe vera is unclear, as the species has been widely cultivated throughout the world. Naturalised stands of the species occur in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula, through North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt) as well as Sudan and neighbouring countries, along with the Canary, Cape Verde and Madeira Islands. This distribution is somewhat similar to the one of Euphorbia balsamifera, Pistacia atlantica and a few others, suggesting that a dry sclerophyl forest once covered large areas, but has been dramatically reduced due to desertification in the Sahara, leaving these few patches isolated. Several closely related species (or sometimes identical) can be found on the two extreme sides of the Sahara: Dragon trees and Aeonium being some of the most representative examples.

The species was introduced to China and various parts of southern Europe in the 17th century. The species is widely naturalised elsewhere, occurring in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Barbados, Belize, Nigeria, Paraguay and the US It has been suggested that the actual species' distribution is the result of human cultivation and that the taxonomy could be doubtful too.

Alternative names

  • In India, Aloe vera is known as Korphad (in Maharashtra), Kattar vazha (in Kerala), Gwarpatha (in Rajasthan and Gujarat), Ghrtakumari (Hindi/Sanskritor Gheekvar and is used in Ayurvedic medicine and as a home remedy for skin allergies, acne, fungus infections and beauty-aid. In the state of Tamil Nadu the plant is called Katralai or Katrazhai (and its pulp is highly regarded for its anti-ageing potential, hence its pet name Kumari. The pulp is used extensively in Siddha medicines for treating ailments including constipation, enlargement of the spleen, zymotic disease, and chengamaari (a type of venereal infection). It is also known as Kalabanda in the Telugu language, and as Gheekoari in Oriya.
  • In Pakistan, the plant is known as Quargandal and is used in Unani (Greek-Islamic) medicine.
  • In Indonesia, it is known as Lidah Buaya (or "Crocodile's Tongue").
  • In Thailand, it is known as the "Crocodile Tail" (plant.
  • In Vietnam, it is known as the "Nha Dam" plant.
  • In Latin America and the Philippines, it is often called either "Savia", "Savila", or
    "Sabila". Both indigenous peoples and some Mestizos use it as a traditional medicine.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE

Cultivation

Aloe vera can be grown as an ornamental plant.

Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. The species is popular with modern gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and due to its interesting flowers, form and succulence. This succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall, making it ideal for rockeries and other low-water use gardens. The species is hardy in zones 8-11, although it is intolerant of very heavy frost or snow. The species is relatively resistant to most insect pests, though spider mites, mealy bugs, scale insects and aphid species may cause a decline in plant health. In pots, the species requires well-drained sandy potting soil and bright sunny conditions; however, in very hot and humid tropical or subtropical climates, aloe plants should be protected from direct sun and rain, as they will burn and/or turn mushy easily under these conditions. The use of a good quality commercial propagation mix or pre-packaged "cacti and succulent mix" is recommended as they allow good drainage. Terracotta pots are preferable as they are porous. Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry prior to re-watering. When potted aloes become crowded with "pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant," they should be divided and re-potted to allow room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. During winter, A. vera may become dormant, during which little moisture is required. In areas that receive frost or snow the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses. Large scale agricultural production of Aloe vera is undertaken in Australia, Bangladesh, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, India,t Jamaica Kenya and South Africa, along with the USAto supply the cosmetics industry with Aloe vera.

Uses

Medicinal uses
Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of Aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory. Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturising and healing properties of Aloe vera, especially via Internet advertising. Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotion, yogurt, beverages and some desserts. Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and relief of digestive issues such as heartburn and irritable bowelsyndrome. it is comm- on practice for cosmetic companies to -a-dd-sap or other derivatives from Altb products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sascreens, incense, razors and shampoos. Other uses for extracts of Aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep, use as fresh food preservative, and use in Water conservation in small farms.

If the patient has consulted with a naturopath and want to use our juice internally, process only the clear gel fillet. Rinse it in a mild vinegar solution (vinegar mixed with water) to remove more of the sap's residue. Eat or drink the amount prescribed as soon as possible for maximum benefit. You may want to flavor it with something tart, salty or sweet (such as fruit juice). Save excess gel by freezing it.

EXTERNAL USE
For external use, we can mix the gel and mucilage together to create our "juice". The gel can be difficult to liquify. Some people puree it using the base of a blender and replacing the standard container with a mason jar This also works well for chopping spices and nuts.

Aloe juice that hasn't been commercially processed tends to have an unpleasant odor. This is normal and won't affect its properties.

STORAGE
Don't forget to store our aloe juice in the refrigerator. Use a glass or food-safe plastic container. Brown or dark green glass is best to block out excess light. Even a small amount of aloe juice can go a long way. To make it last even longer and to prevent discoloration (our juice will eventually turn brown), add a drop of vitamin E and a drop of grapefruit seed extract, or mix in some citric acid powder. Remember, however, that aloe is best when fresh.

WHOLE LEAF VS FILLET PROCESSING
There's an ongoing debate between commercial aloe producers as to whether or not "whole leaf' processing yields a superior product to the traditional "fillet" method. Whole leaf processing usually involves grinding up the entire aloe leaf, removing the rind by pouring the ground leaf through filters, and then removing the aloin (sap) by running everything through a charcoal filter.

Even among whole leaf processors, there's a debate as to whether or not charcoal filters and most other latex sap removal techniques decrease the aloe's positive affects. Home whole leaf processing is difficult, but if we're a devotee of this method, it is possible.

Benefits from Aloe Vera JuiceAloe vera juice benefits - known for health and nutrition - and aloe vera gelly (not a juice) uses for the skin, are legendary. Most people know first-hand the soothing benefits of aloe vera juice and gelly on minor burns and cuts.

But we know drinking aloe vera juice (made from the pure aloe vera gel without the useless "rind" or so called, "whole leaf") benefits our body with 200 health promoting compounds, including 20 minerals, 18 amino acids and 12 vitamins? Forever Living Products' aloe vera juice drinks are favored by those looking to maintain the benefits of a healthy digestive system and a natural energy level with optimum health and nutrition.

The aloe vera juice drinks recommended on this site were the first to receive certification by the International Aloe Science Council. This rich cocktail of pulp and liquid in these juices authenticates these aloe vera products are just as nature intended. Taken daily, either alone or mixed with fruit or vegetable juice, aloe vera juice benefits are among the best nutritional supplements available!

The Surprising Truth About Aloe Vera Juice Benefits :
There's a reason the benefits of aloe vera juice are trusted in products wesee every day. And that reason dates back thousands of years. The earliest civilizations revered this extraordinary botanical for its astonishing beneficial properties. Its legendary uses have been passed down through time, enhanced by scientific innovation and centuries of experience.

Preparation of solid dispersion of aloe vera gel :
Before beginning the preparation of aloe gel we should know the advantageous effect of aloe gel. Because gel is the most potent part of the plant. The central core of gel is also known as gel fillet . The gel is the most important part for medicinal uses.

Juice is not selected because it has the effect on health but it is used as a nutrient The yellow sap is used as an ingredient in laxatives and can cause the diarrhoea.

The technique :
1.
The inner mucilaginous parenchymatous tissues of leaves of aloe vera plant were separated out with the help of a spoon and homogenized in a blender at 30 rpm.
2.
The homogenized mass was separated with sintered glass filter under vacuum, freeze dried and subsequently stored at 4 'c Microcrystalline cellulose can also be used.
3. 
Then it is preserved for overnight in a place free from micro-organism .Itis then dried and the dried form is made in to powder.
4.
The dried form is insoluble in water. To make it soluble in water the ethanol is mixed with the dried powder .It is mixed properly. Glacial acetic acid aqueous alkali, acetone, chloroform can also be used instead of ethanol.
5.
The powder containing methanol is dried. Now it is ready for the preparation of different dosages form.

By this way the solubility of aloe vera gel is done or enhanced.

SOME IMPORTANT PARAMETERS

PHYSICAL STATE: YELLOW TO ORANGE POWDER

MELTING POINT: 191---193 C (DECOMPOSE)

SOLUBILITY IN WATER: INSOLUBLE.

SOLUBLE IN: GLACIAL ACETIC ACID , AQUOUS ALKALI, ETHANOL, ACETONE, CHLOROFORM & ETHER

TEST:
1.     
GENERAL TEST
1 gm of Aloe Powder Is boiled with 10 ml of water & filtered with help of kieseiguhr. the filtrate is used for bromine test & Schoenteten"s reaction.

2. BROMINE TEST:
Freshly prepared bromine solution is added to a small quantity of above filtrate . This test a pale yellow precipitate of tetrabromalin.

3. SCHOENTETEN"S REACTION ( BORAX TEST)
• Little quantity of above filtrate is treated with borax and shaken well till the borax dissolves
• When few drops of this solutions are added to test tube nearly filled with water , a green fluorescence appers .

4. MODIFIED ANTHRAQUINONE TEST:
The aquous solution of aloesis treated with ferric chloride solution and dilute hydrochloric acid to bring out the oxidative hydrolysis of aloe —emodin .The hydrolysis sets free anthrofriinone which are collected in organic solvent like carbon tetra chloride or ether. The organic layer is separated and shaken with dilute ammonia. The arnmoniacal layer shows rose —pink to cherry red colour indicating the presence of C-glycosides.

CONCLUSION:
Aloe vera gel solid dispersion is prepared by using glacial acetic acid, aqueous alkali, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and ether. Solid dispersion technique found to be effective in increasing the aqueous solubility of Aloe vera gel .Solid dispersion gives a faster dissolution rates . The main objective of solid dispersion of aloe gel is to alleviate the pain of sunburn while speeding healing. It has also anti-inflammatory properties.

Aloe contain at least three anti inflammatory fatty acid that are helpful for the stomach, small intestine and colon .Aloe can aid in keeping the skin supple and has been used in the control of acne and eczema.

All is possible with the help of solid dispersion of aloe vera gel.

References
1. Akinyele BO, Odiyi AC (2007). "Comparative study of the vegetative morphology and the existing taxonomic status of Aloe vera L.". Journal of Plant Sciences 2 (5): 558–563.doi:10.3923/jps.2007.558.563.
2. Ernst E (2000). "Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology". Br J Dermatol 143 (5): 923–929.doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03822.x.
3. Marshall JM (1990). "Aloe vera gel: what is the evidence?".Pharm J 244: 360–362.
4. Boudreau MD, Beland FA (2006). "An Evaluation of the Biological and Toxicological Properties of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller), Aloe Vera". Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C 24: 103–154.
5. Vogler BK, Ernst E (Oct 1999). "Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness". Br J Gen Pract 49 (447): 823–8. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
6. Yates A. (2002) Yates Garden Guide. Harper Collins Australia
7. Random House Australia Botanica's Pocket Gardening Encyclopedia for Australian Gardeners Random House Publishers, Australia
8. Gong M, Wang F, Chen Y (January 2002). "[Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera]". Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials (in Chinese) 25 (1): 1–3.PMID 12583231.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE

Search this website