PHYTOCHEMICALS AND METABOLITES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH: A REVIEW

 

 

ABOUT AUTHORS
Md. Asad Ullah*, Bishajit Sarkar, Soahana Hossain, Mohammad Nafi-Ur-Rahman, Md. Shariful Islam
Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Jahangirnagar University,
Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Microbial infection and contamination have become major concern during last few decades. A vast array of microorganisms is responsible for devastating consequences like- human and other animal infection, food poisoning, resource contamination etc. Beyond this, antimicrobial resistance against many natural, synthetic and semi synthetic compounds has raised our concern about the possible way to get rid of such complication. All classes of people are not accessible to the commercially available antimicrobials due to their expensiveness. Moreover, commercially available antimicrobials are not preferable to everyone due to their toxicity and other side effects. Many phytochemicals and secondary metabolites from plants such as, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, essential oil, saponins have been shown to have in vitro antimicrobial activities with less toxicity and side effects. Many of these compounds are even effective against a range of resistant strains. Bangladesh is an agricultural country and tremendous variety of medicinal plants with antimicrobial property is available here. This study has been designed to find out the medicinal plants from Bangladesh with antimicrobial activity, their effective antimicrobial bioactive compounds and the range of microorganisms upon which these compounds are active. Hopefully, this study will raise research interest among researchers about the active antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2668

INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants are the natural sources of many bioactive compounds which trigger different functions in human body. Wide variety of medicinal plants is being used for the treatment of multiple diseases from ancient time by the people in rural areas around the world (Newman et al., 2000). Numerous plants among them have predominant antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic and non pathogenic microbes (Srivastava et al., 1996). Effective bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities found in these plants include phytochemicals and many secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical value. Although in vitro screening of many phytochemicals has already been done, potentiality of many compounds is still to be explored (Cowman, 1999). This review article comprises the effectiveness of multiple (50) medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity found in Bangladesh. However, further research study may be required to find out the best possible antimicrobial agent from medicinal plant.

Probable Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action of Plant Derived Compounds
Different plant derived compounds follow different modes of action to exhibit their antimicrobial property. And different plants are effective against different types and strains of microorganisms such as- gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi. For example, Saponins usually exhibit antimicrobial property by pore formation in the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Allicin interacts with the thiol (-SH) group of many enzymes and disrupt their function. Alongside this, Apigenin and Quercetin interrupt the DNA replication process of microorganisms. Yet another types of plant metabolites such as, Resveratrol and Solenopsin A have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity by interfering with the cellular communication between multiple microorganisms. A range of other metabolites have been shown to coagulate the intracellular components of microorganisms. Thus the probable mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of plant derived metabolites can be attributed to 5 possible routes- (1) the disruption of membrane function and structure, (2) interruption of DNA/RNA synthesis and function, (3) interference with intermediary metabolism, (4) induction of coagulation of cytoplasmic constituents and (5) interruption of normal cell communication (Radulovic et al., 2013)

Figure 1: Probable mechanisms of antimicrobial action of plant derived compounds. (Modified from Radulovic et al., 2013)

Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh with Antimicrobial Activity
Bangladesh is an excellent repository of medicinal plants and different plants belonging to different family have been used in Ayurvedic and Unani formulation from long period of time (Rahman et al., 2001).

Table 1 listed some medicinal plants of Bangladesh with antimicrobial activity and other information.

DISCUSSION Variety of medicinal plants possesses different types of secondary metabolites and other phytochemicals which exhibit significant antimicrobial property against variety of microorganisms. Scientists from different field are interested in finding new agent from plant for the use as antimicrobial due to less toxicity and inexpensiveness. Hopefully newly formulated antimicrobials from medicinal plants will be more effective or at least it will be used effectively in combination with commercially available antimicrobials against resistant strains. 

CONCLUSION A well directed in vitro study may be required to find the best possible antimicrobial from the medicinal plants. It will be advantageous for the people of all classes to use the less expensive form of medication to treat infection and diseases.

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