PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL PROFILE OF IXORA PARVIFLORA

 

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Das Sattwik1, Sharma Shikha1, Lariya Shailendra2
1Malhotra College, Department of pharmacology, Badwai, Bhopal, M.P., India
2Radha raman Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Bhopal, M. P., India
*dsattwik@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ixora parviflora
an Indian plant, has long been medicinally used in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess varied number of pharmacological activities. This article gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties. The review reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant which possesses activities like anaemia, whooping cough, antiviral, hypotensive and spasmolytic. These reports are very hopeful and indicate that the plant should be studied more widely for its therapeutic effects.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1925

INTRODUCTION
During the past decade, the traditional systems have gained importance in the field of medicine. The WHO estimates that 4 billion people, 80% of the world population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Herbal medicine is a major component in all indigenous people’s traditional medicine and a common element in Ayuravedic, homeopathic, naturopathic, traditional oriental and native American Indian medicine. Many drugs commonly used today are the herbal origin because of their safety, quality and efficacy. Indeed about 25% of the prescription drugs dispensed in the US contain at least one active ingredient derived from plant material. The present attempt is to review and compile updated information on various aspects of Ixora parvifloraa plant used in Indian system of medicine for variety of purpose. Ixora parvifloraVahl. is an ornamental shrub cultivated in gardens for white cluster of flowers and evergreen foliage


BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
Synonyms: Ixora arboreaRoxb.
Family: Rubiaceae
Bengali/Vernacular Name: Shet Rangan, Gandhal Rangan.
English Name: Torch Tree, Torch-wood lxora
Ayurvedic Name: Nevaari, Nevaali,Ishwara, Rangan.
Siddha/Tamil name: Shulundu-kora,Korivi.

Description of the Plant:
A small much-branched evergreen tree or shrub. leaves opposite, subsessile, 7-15 cm long, coriaceous, elliptic or oblong, obtuse or shortly acuminate. Flowers white,small,very numerous, in subglobose clusters, in sessile cymes, brachiate with 3-5 pairs of short branches.

Distribution:
Ixora paviflora
(Rubicaceae) is a small, much branched evergreen tree or shrub found throughout the greater part of India, from the gangetic plain eastwards to Assam and southwards to Kerala and in Nicobar Islands; it is also grown in the gardens.

ETHNOMEDECINAL USE:
Decoction of the bark is used for anaemia and general debility. Flowers are used in whooping cough. Fruits and roots are given to femles when the urine is high coloured (Yusuf et al. 2009). EtOH(50%) extract of aerial parts is antiviral, hypotensive and spasmolytic (Asolkar et al.1992). The roots paste with groundnut oil is applied for scabis (K. Rajendar et al 2010).

PHYTOCHEMISTRY:
A new flavone glycoside isolated from the stem of Ixora arborea has been characterized as chrysin 5-O-β-D-xylopyranoside on the basis of spectral data, colour reactions and degradation studies (Chauhan et al, 1984).

Leaves contains ixoral and β-sitosterol (Asolkar et al.,1992).

Bark contains fatty matter, tannin and red colouring matter. Seeds yield an oil,wich contains linoleic,oleicstearic and palmitic acids as major components and myristic, lauric,capric and behenic acids as minor ones. 6,7-dimethylhydroxy coumarin has been isolated from the aerial parts (Ghani,2003).

A total of four compounds namely betulin (1), erythrodiol (2), lupeol (3), and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from the leaf extract of Ixora arborea for the first time (Aktar et al, 2009).

Five compounds viz: chlorogenic acid (1), apigenin (2), quercetin (3), apigenin-7-O-fi-D-glucopyranoside (4), and quercetin-3-O-fi-D- galactopyranoside (5) were isolated for the first time from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Ixora parviflora Vahl (Gonaid et al.,2013).

PHARMACOLOGY:

Antioxidant activity
Fahima Aktaretal 2009investigatethe antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of the I.arborea extracts on the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by the method developed by Brand-Williams et al., 1995.

Antimicrobial activity
The disc diffusion methodwas used by Fahima Aktar etal 2009 to test antimicrobial activity of the I.arborea extractives against 13 bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio mimicus & V. parahemolyticus) and 3 fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger & Sacharomyces cerevisiae).

Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion assay against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. All methanolic extracts of different parts of Ixoraspecies showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial and antiyeast activities, which inhibited the growth of at least one bacterium or yeast (Lachimanan et al, 2012)

Cytotoxic activities:
Brine shrimp lethality bioassaytechnique was applied for determination of general toxic property of the plant extractives(Fahima Aktaretal 2009).

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