OXAZOLE – ISOXAZOLE: MOLECULE OF DIVERSE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

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About Authors:
*C.P.Meher,  S.P.Sethy,  S. M Ahmed
Department of pharmaceutical Chemistry, Maheshwara college of Pharmacy,
chitkul (V), Isnapur “X” Road,  patancheru, Hyderabad.
*chaitanyameher84@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:-
Heterocyclic chemistry is vastly expanding because of the enormous amount of research work being done in this area. Heterocyclic compound are very widely distributed in nature and are particularly important because of the wide variety of physiological activities associated with this class of substances . A great deal of research is carried out to prepare new heterocyclic molecules having therapeutic uses.[1] and also so many heterocyclic derivative are synthesized till now having desired pharmacological effect. Out of them oxazole & isoxazole derivatives are catagorised in a higher position as the other heterocyclic compound possess in the hetero-chemistry. The present review is concern with the comparative study of the derivative of oxazole & isoxazole derivatives  along with their pharmacological effects.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1504

INTRODUCTION:-
Medicinal chemistry concerns with the discovery, development, interpretation and the identification of mechanism of action of biologically active compounds at the molecular level.  An important aspect of medicinal chemistry has been to establish a relationship between chemical structure and pharmacological activity. Several of the important compound contain heterocyclic rings, e.g. heterocyclic ring are present in most of the member of  vitamin B-complex  , most of the alkaloids, antibiotics, chlorophyll, haemoglobin ,other plant pigment, aminoacids ,dyes, drugs, enzymes, the genetic material, DNA etc..Oxazoleis the parent compound for a vast class of heterocyclicaromaticorganic compounds. These are azoleswith an oxygen and a nitrogen separated by one carbon. Oxazoles are aromatic compoundsbut less so than the thiazoles. Oxazole is a weak base; its conjugate acidhas a pKaof 0.8, compared to 7 for imidazole. Isoxazole is an azolewith an oxygen atom next to the nitrogen. Isoxazole rings are found in some natural products, such as ibotenic acid. Isoxazoles also form the basis for a number of drugs, including the COX-2 inhibitor valdecoxib(Bextra).some of the physical as well as the chemical properties of the oxazole & isoxazole nucleus are described in table.1.

Table-1

Various physical & chemical properties of oxazole & isoxazole are similar (table-1) but substitution on different position on the nucleus of oxazole & isoxazole gives different derivative with different pharmacological effects.Oxazole does not occur in nature  & thus does not play any part any part in fundamental  metabolism as do imidazole & thiazole.Still most of the oxazole derivative are under clinical trial or under investigation for treatment of disease like cancer , diabetic. some derivative  of oxazole derivative are used as  plateletaggregation inhibitor, calcium imaging, NSAID, wavelength shifter, treatment of absence seizure , antibiotic activity. Similarly the isoxazole derivative possess  antibiotic activity, treatment of T.B.,U.T.I ,treatment of cancer, anti-viral ,N.S.A.I.D.,Treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritisand psoriatic arthritis.etc.

Given below is a brief account of various alterations conducted on oxazole & isoxazole ring containing few importent marketed drug,dugs under clinical trial and their associated biological activities in table-2 & table-3 respectively.

Oxazole

Table-2

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