AN OVERVIEW ON MANGIFERA INDICA: IMPORTANCE AND ITS VARIOUS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

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About Author:
Pallab Kalita
Assam Down Town University,
Institute of Pharmacy, Guwahati, Assam, India
kalitapallab@gmail.com

Abstract
Majority of crude drugs from plant origin are used in  Indian system of medicine. Medicinal  plants are using as herbal remedies to prevent and cure several ailments differs from community to community. Most studies on the exploitation of mango have been dealing with mango peels, juices and stem bark and mango leaves. Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), reported to contain active substances like mangiferin. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity. Mangiferin is a pharmacologically active flavonoids, which having the anti bacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetes, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory activities.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2291

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 12

Received On: 22/10/2014; Accepted On: 28/10/2014; Published On: 01/12/2014

How to cite this article: P Kalita; An Overview on Mangifera Indica: Importance and Its Various Pharmacological Action; PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(12); 72-76

 

INTRODUCTION
Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is one of the important tropical fruits in the world and India contributes major part of the world production. in Indian, Mango is considered as a king of fruits. The differentparts of M. indicahaving medicinal uses forthroughout the globe. The Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the most important tropical plants[1]. Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in the wild in India and cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is the largest fruit-tree in the world, capable of a height of one-hundred feet and an average circumference of twelve to fourteen feet, sometimes reaching twenty. Mangiferin(a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthoneC-glycoside) is extracted from Mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg)[2]. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity due to pitta (heat). Mango is one of the most popular of all tropical fruits. Mangiferin, being a polyphenolic antioxidant and a glucosyl xanthone, it has strong antioxidant, anti lipid peroxidation, immunomodulation, cardiotonic, hypotensive, wound healing, antidegenerative and antidiabetic activities.

Various parts of plant are used as a dentrifrice, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, laxative and diuretic and to treat diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, hypertension, insomnia, rheumatism, toothache, leucorrhoea, haemorrhage and piles. All parts are used to treat abscesses, broken horn, rabid dog or jackal bite, tumour, snakebite, stings, datura poisoning, heat stroke, miscarriage, anthrax, blisters, wounds in the mouth, tympanitis, colic, diarrhea, glossitis, indigestion, bacillosis, bloody dysentery, liver disorders, excessive urination, tetanus and asthma.

Taxonomical Classification[3]

Kingdom

Plantae

Class

Mangoliopsida

Phylum

Mangoliophyta

Order

Sapindales

Family

Anacardiaceae

Genus

Mangifera

Species

Indica

Different Species of mango:
-Mangifera altissima             -Mangifera persiciformis

- Mangifera camptosperma    -Mangifera caesia

- Mangifera decandra           -Mangiferalaurina

-Mangifera odorata              -Mangifera longipes

-Mangifera foetida etc.

Phytochemical constituents  of Mangifera indica and structureof mangiferin-
Various Chemical constituents are found in different species of mango. These constituents are always of an interest. Especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids are the different chemical constituents of the plant. Mangiferin is a (xanthone glycoside) major bio-active constituent, isomangiferin, tannins & gallic acid derivatives. The bark is reported to contain protocatechic acid, catechin, mangiferin, alanine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, kinic acid, shikimic acid and the tetracyclic triterpenoids cycloart-24-en-3β,26diol, 3-ketodammar-24 (E)-en-20S,26-diol, C-24 epimers of cycloart-25 en 3β,24,27-triol and cycloartan-3β,24,27-triol.[1].after the isolation of stem bark of mangifera indica, Indicoside A and B, manghopanal, mangoleanone, friedelin, cycloartan-3β-30-diol and derivatives, mangsterol, manglupenone, mangocoumarin, n-tetacosane, n-heneicosane, n-triacontane and mangiferolic acid methyl ester and others were found[3],[4],[5].

Structure-
Mangiferin
Formula: C19H18O11
Molar mass: 422.33 g/mol

NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE
In Mango fruit, pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and poly-phenolic flavonoid compounds are found.Mango is a very good source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin). 765 mg of recommended daily levels of vitamin A is present in 100 gm of mango fresh fruit. Together; these compounds are known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin vitamin A is required. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes is known to protect body from lung and oral cavity cancers. Fresh mango is a very rich source of potassium. Potassium  in an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. It is also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production in the brain. It also controls homocystiene levels in the blood, which may otherwise be harmful to blood vessels resulting in CAD and stroke. Copper is a co-factor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells. Mango peels are also rich in phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants like carotenoids and polyphenols[6].

Fresh, Nutrition Value Per 100 G of fresh mango fruit[7],[8]

Sl no.

Principle

Nutrient Value

1

Energy

70 kcal

2

Carbohydrate

17 gm

3

Protein

05gm

4

Total fat

0.27gm

5

Cholesterol

0mg

6

Dietary fibre

1.80gm

7

Vitamine

Folate

Niacin

Vit-C

Vit-A

Vit-E

Vit-K


14µg

0.6mg

27.7mg

765IU

1.12mg

4.2µg

8

Electrolyte

158mg

9

Minerals

Calcium

Magnesium

10mg

9mg

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