NUTRITION PLAN TO PROMOTE HEALTH & PREVENT DISEASES

 

About Authors:
1Govind shukla*, 1Sangita kumari, 2Anna victoria zamora maguddayao, 3Ms.Shivani prashar, 4C.J sampath kumar
1Research Scholar, JNTU, Hyderabad
2Head (RA&QA) Pharmasan Inc 525 A de Guzman St, Parang Marikina City PHILIPPINES
3Sr. Product Executive, Shrey Nutraceuticals Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi
4Managing Director, Lactonova India Hyderabad
govindbbd@gmail.com

Abstract
Nutrition(also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy nutrition.
Nutrition describes the processes by which all of the food a person eats are taken in and the nutrients that the body needs are absorbed. Good nutrition can help prevent disease and promote health.
Carbohydrate, Protein, Vitamins and minerals are an important part of nutrition. Vitamins are organic substances present in food. They are required by the body in small amounts to regulate metabolism and to maintain normal growth and functioning. Minerals are vital because they are the building blocks that make up the muscles, tissues, and bones. They also are important to many life-supporting systems, such as hormones, transport of oxygen, and enzyme systems.
A good nutrition plan will ensure that a balance of food groups, and the nutrients supplied by each group, is eaten A poor diet may have an injurious impact on health, causing nutrition deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor  health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Present paper expresses the role of nutritional supplements on general health & disease conditions.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2087

Introduction
The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids) and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat.

There are seven major classes of nutrients:1,2
These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.

Carbohydrates
Fats
Dietary fiber
Minerals
Proteins
Vitamins,
Water.

Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances

Age group

Energy
*
(kcal)

Protein

(g)

Total
Fat
(g)

SFA

(g)

Carbo-
hydrates
(g)

Dietary
fibre
(g)

Choles-
terol
(mg)

Ca

(g)

Na

(mg)

Fe

(mg)

Vit
A
(mcg)

Folic
Acid
(mcg)

Vit
C
(mg)

Men














18- 29 yrs

2550

68

71

23.6

351

26

300

0.4-0.5

1700

6

750

200

30

30- 59 yrs

2500

68

69

23.0

344

25

300

0.4-0.5

1650

6

750

200

30

60 yrs and above

2100

68

58

19.3

289

21

300

0.4-0.5

1400

6

750

200

30

Women














18 - 29 yrs

2000

58

56

18.6

275

20

300

0.4-0.5

1350

19

750

200

30

30- 59 yrs

2000

58

57

19.0

275

20

300

0.4-0.5

1350

19

750

200

30

60 yrs and above

1800

58

50

16.7

248

18

300

0.4-0.5

1200

6

750

200

30

Pregnant women














- full activity

+285

+9

+8 

+6

+39 

+3 

300 

1.0-1.2

+200 

19

750

400

50

- reduced activity

+200

+9

+6 

+2 

+28 

+2  

300 

1.0-1.2

+150 

19

750

400

50

Lactating women














- first 6 months

+500

+25

+14 

+4.6 

+69 

+5 

300 

1.0-1.2

+350 

19

1200

400

50

- after 6 months

+500

+19

+14 

+4.6

+69

+5

300

1.0-1.2

+350 

19

1200

400

50

Legend:  SFA - saturated fat; Ca - calcium; Na - sodium; Fe - iron; Vit A - vitamin A; Vit C - vitamin C

Please note: 

  • Recommended energy intakes (*) are for individuals with sedentary to light activity levels.
  • The above recommended daily intakes vary depending on physical activity and physiological state of an individual, e.g. pregnancy and lactation.
  • The recommended dietary allowances are average daily intakes of nutrients over a period of time for the majority of the population. They are not absolute daily dietary requirements.

Source: NationalInsitituteofNutrition

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products.

Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.

Simple carbohydrates are absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-sugar levels more rapidly than other nutrients. However, the most important plant carbohydrate nutrient, starch, varies in its absorption. Gelatinized starch (starch heated for a few minutes in the presence of water) is far more digestible than plain starch. And starch which has been divided into fine particles is also more absorbable during digestion. The increased effort and decreased availability reduces the available energy from starchy foods substantially.

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