MINI-STROKE (TIA): A REVIEW

 

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V. Sravanthi*1, Mayure vijay kumar1, Donthineni Kalyan2, G.J.Finny1, C.P.Meher1
1Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Saraswathi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Isnapur chitkul ‘X’ road, Patancheru, Hyderabad-502307
*v.sravanthi27@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
TIA stands for transcient ischemic attack, is a temporary blockage of blood flow in the brain that causes stroke symptoms. A transient ischemic attack is often called a mini-stroke. It is considered a warning sign that a more serious stoke will happen in the future. They may include weakness on one side of the body, dizziness, blurred vision, confusion, and speech problems. A TIA is a medical emergency. Following the below words cover about transient ischemic attacks (TIA), medication, prevention, diagnosing etc.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2216

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 8

Received On: 30/05/2014; Accepted On: 02/06/2014; Published On: 01/08/2014

How to cite this article: V Sravanthi, VK Mayure, D Kalyan, GJ Finny, CP Meher; Mini-Stroke (TIA): A Review; PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(8); 87-94

INTRODUCTION:
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) isoften labeled “mini-stroke” it is more accurately characterized as a “warning stroke,” a warning you should take very seriously. Ischemia results to the transcient episode of neurogic dysfunction either by focal brain or spinal cord. symptoms of TIAs preferred as contra lateral paralysis, sudden weakness or numbness etc., it also  causes a sudden dimming or loss of vision, aphasia, slurred speech and mental confusion. But it lasts for less than 24hrs.  TIA’s relates to the strokes which frequently referred as “mini-stroke”. Brain injury may be the chance with the presence of TIAs.1,2 A silent stroke differs from a TIA in that there are no immediately observable symptoms. A silent stroke often occurs before or after a TIA or major stroke.3

MEDICATION:

ASPIRIN + DIPYRIDAMOLE4:

S.NO

STAGE

DRUG

CATEGORY

SIDE EFFECTS

1

primary

ASPIRIN + dipyridamole

(combination used for 2 years)

anti-platelet

Dipyridamole:

headaches ,dizziness, nausea 

2

secondary

Aspirin:

(reduce TIA by 25%)

anti-platelet

Aspirin: stomach irritation,

indigestion, nausea

CLOPIDOGREL4:

S.NO

DRUG

USED

CATEGORY

SIDE EFFECTS

1

CLOPIDOGREL

severe side effects from taking aspirin

Antiplatelet

Diarrhoea ,Indigestion,

Bruising, Bleeding

TICLOPIDINE4:

S.NO

DRUG

USED

CATEGORY

NOTE

1

TICLOPIDINE

Used for patients who cannot tolerate or do not respond to aspirin therapy.

Second-line Antiplatelet


Alternative to clopidogrel

ANTI-COAGULANT MEDICATION4:

WARFARIN:

S.NO

DRUG

DESCRIPTION

CATEGORY

SIDE EFFECTS

1

Warfarin

Need regular (INR) tests.

Anti-coagulant

Bleeding, blood in your vomit, coughing up blood, unusual headaches

 

Medication options for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke:4

CARDIO-EMBOLIC:

DRUG

DOSE

NOTES

Warfarin

5 mg oral daily

For atrial fibrillation titrate INR to 2-3

Aspirin

325 mg oral daily

Only appropriate if warfarin contraindicated

NON-CARDIOEMBOLIC:

            DRUG          

DOSE

NOTES

Aspirin/ ER dipyridamole

25mg / 200mg oral daily

Headache is common

Clopidigrel

75mg oral daily

Preffered agent for aspirinallergy

Aspirin

50-325 mg oarl daily

Least expensive antiplatelet agent

BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATION4:

CHOLESTEROL MEDICATION:
- High cholesterol à increase risks of having a TIA.
- lower cholesterol by making certain lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy, balanced diet can avoid TIA.
- Statins are used to lower the cholesterol level.
- Statins help reduce the production of cholesterol in liver5.

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