Merging Religious Holistic and Scientific Aspect of Basic infection control practices Isolation Hand washing and Bathing to assist infection control in COVID - A Union Therapy Initiative

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ABOUT AUTHORS
1Kanishk Kala, 2Dr Rupinder Kaur Sodhi

1Research Scholar Pharmacy Chandigarh College of Pharmacy IK Gujral PTU Punjab
2Guide Pharmacology Chandigarh College of Pharmacy IK Gujral PTU Punjab

ABSTRACT
At present time COVID-19 has become a global threat.  In spite of modern technology The medical management of the said disease is not yet accomplished. The only strategy being used for this is in the preventive measures. This documents that still there is need of ancient method for management. This review highlights is based on the Union therapy view / Sayojya Chikitsa  which respects all treatment modality and tries to integrate scientific mythological and religious role of basic hygiene practices like Isolation hand washing and bathing spiritual techniques to combat the physical psychological and mental aspects of this COVID-19.

BACKGROUND
In primitive China or almost all around the globe the infections were regarded as consequence of unknown preferably God or Ghost were linked to infectious. In china climate change was regarded as a cause of disease During Ming Dynasty pathogens were perceived as cause of infections. Latter in   Han Dynasty skin was related to infections while in the Sui Dynasty, diet and direct contacts was perceived as the cause of infections. (Huigang etal.,2019)

INTRODUCTION
In the Past Plague word stems from the word pests which were a general term for every epidemic with high mortality Isolation has been used against infectious diseases since ancient past Evidences are present in Bible where patients with leprosy were separated from other and had to live whole life as separated. Leprosy in bile is represented as a sin cured by divine intervention (Genessi.,2004)

ISOLATION
During the Hippocratic times the infectious disease had a time frame of 40 days which was a multiple of a Pythagoras belief of sacred number 4.  In addition there is a religious relevance to the 40 days of quarantine as in Bible number 40 appears a prevalent in many incidents. In addition the Hippocratic oberservations were synonyms with the pattern of TCM modality where fever appeared in major patients in the forty days. (Nie.,2015; Tognottietal.,2013)

In 1374 a law was passed in Italy in which plagued person was to be taken out of city and left there to die or recover. (Mackowiak.,2002)

Latter in 1377 an order was passed to ensure ‘trentina’ A thirty days isolation for ships and Quarta 40 days for travelers. In addition they were allowed to remain at aa shelter outside city for specified time and trespassing of the laws was considered a crime. Even the persons serving the quarantined were not allowed to come to isolated area nor bring any food items to the area. The similar is this case with the COVID-19 which has been a global threat which is not managed by modern science. Hence to cope the problem as per union therapy ancient tested and implemented protocols could help to break the transmission channel of infection. (Gensini etal.,2004; Tognottietal.,2013;Kala etal.,2019; Kala etal.,2020)

In 1423 first ‘lazaretto’ (quarantine station) was set up whose specifications  which became the foundation for other European countries. In coming 10 decades laws were enacted regarding quarantine in Italy and France. Latter certification of quarantine were being issued to travelers and it has become a political entity with different countries having different rules of quarantine (Gensini etal.,2004; Tognottietal.,2013)

HAND WASHING
Hand washing is an important activity helpful in COVID It has been supported in many religions also like Hinduism and Islam where hand washing is must before doing prayers or religious rites Hinduism Sikhism Judaism and  Islam, have set norms  rules for hand washing n their  sacred  texts which are to be followed  In Sikh community hand washing is a holy as well as a routine task. Similarly Islam also advocates on maintaining utmost hygiene standards. Christians also follow water sprinkling on hand s in one of their  holy procedures. Buddhist faith also supports hand cleaning after meal.  Different cultures like African, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim advocates the use of right hand for routine activities and left hand is regarded as unclean. Almost all religions support to wash hands before prayers, rituals. Eating,  and after touching animals ,unhygienic act , toilets  and dead persons.

Hence tough the hand washing in this scenario has 2 roles ritualistic and cleaning but at ground level infection control is ensured every time the hand is washed. Thus as a union therapy initiative the practice of hand wash should be initiated in public by focusing the scientific as well as ritualistic effect as this is the prime technique to prevent the spread of infections during COVID. (Allegranzi, etal.,2008; Kala etal.,2019; Kala etal.,2020)

BATHING
Bathing is an essential daily activity and had religious medical and cultural dimensions. Preferred by Greeks both in fresh water as well as sea was practiced. It has cleansing hygienic and religious purposes. In fact it was combined with therapeutics to bring change in habits in a pattern where bathing, perspiration, walking, and massages were blended. Roman excelled in this and utilized bathing as Spa therapy and hydrotherapy was developed. This could also assist in cleaning and infection control hence could aid in prevention of COVID-19. (Tubergen,2002).

POSITIVE ROLE OF SPRITUALITY
Isolation have  negative effects on patients  like  anxiety, depression and falls hence to cope this up spirituality parameter  as a vocation of health is focused Studies conducted in modern time also showed that up to 33% and 77% of patients insist on fulfillment of their spiritual needs especially in palliative care scenario where spirituality and religion holds a prominent place.5  (Abdulla etal.,2019)   The palliative care is also focused in COVID as it is has caused high mortality on global level. In modern science perspective studies reveal that  spirituality is linked with improvement in depression cognitive impairment  pain and quality of life  hence spirituality  counseling in  all medical conditions preferably in chronic medical illnesses and terminal conditions or un treatable illness must be done to make therapy complete in all aspects. Spirituality inclusion in treatment has shown improvements in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, pulmonary diseases and dealing with negative impacts of treatment outcome. Hence the inclusion of religion and belief in treatment is a tool to make therapy comprehensive acceptable accessible and to invoke faith acceptability compatibility and adherence in patient towards therapy.(Singh etal.,2012 Kala etal.,2019;Kala etal.,2020)

CONCLUSSION
Health has diverse dimensions and is not merely absence of disase Hence to attian ultimate health all dimensions of health to be assessed and intervened. This review is an effort under Union Therapy Initiative to show the link of supernatural or religious myths in modern practices like isolation bathing hygiene aspects and supports the view to amalgamate the past views with the present through valid scientific tastings, so that a comprehensive holistic approach of treatment could be applied for a global threat like COVID and other such untreatable disease or in case of palliative care. (Kala etal.,2019; Kala etal.,2020)

References
1. A van Tubergen, S van der Linden A brief history of spa therapy. Ann Rheum Dis 2002;61:273–275.
2. Gian Franco Gensinia,b, Magdi H. Yacouba,c, Andrea A. Contia,b, The concept of quarantine in history: from plague to SARS. Journal of Infection (2004) 49, 257–261.
3. Benedetta Allegranzi, Ziad A. Memish, Liam Donaldson, Didier Pittet,  Religion and culture: Potential undercurrents influencing hand hygiene promotion in health care. .ajic.2008.01.014
4. Liang Huigang a, Xiang Xiaowei b, Huang Cui a, Ma Haixia c, Yuan Zhiming c A brief history of the development of infectious disease prevention, control, and biosafety programs in China. Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity xxx (xxxx) xxx
5. Wen Nie  The Origin Of Quarantine.  Global Partners in Education Journal – Special Edition December 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 24-31
6. Philip A. Mackowiak, The Origin of Quarantine. ARCANUM • CID 2002:35  1071-1072.
7. Eugenia Tognotti Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013; 19(2), 254-259.
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9. Singh DM, Ajinkya S. Spirituality and religion in modern medicine. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34 :399-402.
10. Purssell E, Gould D, Chudleigh J. Impact of isolation on hospitalised patients who are infectious: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2020;10.
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12. A van Tubergen, S van der Linden A brief history of spa therapy. Ann Rheum Dis 2002;61:273–275
13. Jacob N. Ablin,1 Winfried Häuser,2,3 and Dan Buskila4 Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013,
14. Kala K, Sodhi RK. Union Therapy- a Weapon Against Covid 19. International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 2020,5:36.

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