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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL CREAM

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About Authors:
*1Bhuwanchandra Joshi, 2Mr.Nardev Singh
1
Division of Pharmaceutical Science, SGRRITS
2Assitant Professor
Division of Pharmaceutical Science
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute Of Technology And Sciences,
Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
*bhuwan.joshi000@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
The cosmetics are the utility product used extensively throughout the world for maintaining and improving general appearance of face and other part of body e.g. skin, eye, hair, hand, etc. herbal cosmetics are the preparation which represent cosmetics associated with active bio-ingredients, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
Cosmetics are products that are used to cleanse and beautify the skin. The first recorded use of cosmetics is attributed to Egyptians in 4000 B.C. Pharmaceuticals are essentially drug products and are defined as products that prevent, mitigate, treat or cure disease and affect the structure or function of the body.

By the European directive (European commission).The cosmetic products are defined as“ any substance  or preparation  intended to be placed in contract with the various external parts of human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips, etc) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them perfuming them changing their appearance or correcting body odours and  the protecting them or keeping them and good conditions.1

The cosmetics, according to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act is defined as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on, introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.

 


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1636

Cosmetics industry includes very dark chapters in European and Western countries from about six centuries back. During the past decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of natural products in cosmetics. A wide range of active principle of various plants and animals including vitamins, hormones, phyto-hormones, bioflavonoids, enzymes, tannic acid, fruit acids, amino acids, sugars, glycosides, essential oils and dye  stuffs are being considered useful in herbal cosmetic formulations. The use of phyto-chemicals  from a variety of botanicals has dual function, they serve as cosmetics for  the care of body. The botanical ingredients present influence biological functions of skin and provide  nutrients  necessary for the healthy skin or hair.

The literature in ayurveda, especially chark samhita stated numerous medicinal plant in varnya kashaya. The herb like chandun, haldi, khas, nagkheshara, manjistha, yastimadhu, are used to obtained glowing complexion and arusa, amla, bavchi, guduchi, chakmard are mentioned as kustaharan. Herbs like amalaki, haridra, khadira, vidyanga, jati  saptaparna, karavira of various potential from khshthagna and mahakashiya are mentioned effective in skin disorder. Herbs used in cosmetics preparation have varieties of properties like Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptics and Antibacterial etc.2

HERBAL COSMETICS
Herbal cosmetics also known as “natural cosmetics”. With the beginning of the civilization, mankind had the magnetic dip towards impressing others with their looks. At the time, there were no fancy fairness creams or any cosmetic surgeries.The only thing they had was the knowledge of nature, compiled in the ayurveda. With the science of Ayurveda, several herbs and floras were used to make Ayurvedic cosmetics that really worked. Ayurvedic cosmetics not only beautified the skin but acted as the shield against any kind of external affects for the body.

Ayurvedic cosmetics also known as the herbal cosmetics have the same estimable assets in the modern era as well. There is a wide gamut of the herbal cosmetics that are manufactured and commonly used for daily purposes. Herbal cosmetics like herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soaps, herbal shampoo, and many more are highly acclaimed by the masses.

The best thing of the herbal cosmetics is that it is purely made by the herbs and shrubs.The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body, instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components.

Cosmetics are the products in which herbs are used in crude or extract form.  The basic idea of skin care cosmetic lies deep in the Rigveda, Yajurveda, Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic system of medicine. In this modern era, the knowledge and experience of usage of herbs are being blend with advanced cosmetic technology to develop a safe and elegant beauty product, which has wider range of people acceptability. Basically it is beauty invented by nature and perfected through technology.3

Herbs have the advantage of having no or least adverse effect and have a wide  spectrum of consumer compliance. The herbal cosmetic market has a share of almost Rs 200 crores out of an estimated Rs 2000 crores of total cosmetic industry in the country. The total cosmetic market is growing at the rate of 20-25% per annum. Out of this growth about 60% is that of herbal cosmetic segment.

 Herbal extracts in liquid and other forms have proved to be panacea in the diseases like cardiac problems, digestive disorders and in mental fatigues. In some cases, herbal extracts accuracy was detected more than English medicines which are usually comprised of complex chemicals. Herbal extracts have very less chances of side effects than any other medicines. That as why herbal extracts are said to be common man same Medicines and drugs.Herbal extracts have shown commercial aspects as well. Herbal extracts are cultivated all over the world and is prime name in horticulture sector. In the present, masses are drifting towards nature and several cosmetics, fashionable items and others are prepared from it. Cosmetics made up of herbal extracts for Antimarks, fairness, cleansing and hair-care are very popular for their reliability.

Later the liquefied juice is mixed with essential substances to prepare the herbal extracts. There exist a gigantic variety of herbal extracts, to name a few Andrographis Paniculata (Kalmegh), Asparagus Racemosus (Shatawari), Boswellia Serrata (Salai Guggal), Asphalt (Shilajit) etc. Some other frequently used herbal extracts are Azadirachta Indica (Neem),Bacopa Monnieri (Brahmi), Camellia Sinensis (Green tea) etc. In addition to this Centella Asiatica (Mandukparni),Cassia Angustifolia (Seena), Chlorophytum Borivilianum (Safed Musli) are some of the prime herbal extracts used.

Herbal cosmetics are maintained in effective manner with following benefits:-
*    Being natural, least harmful effect on the skin or other body part.
*    Relatively more safe.
*    More placebo effect to the consumers due to its use in tradition and culture.
*    Flexibility in formulation.
*    Population proves effects from ancient time.
*    Easy availiability.4

PRESENT STATUS
According to market survey the global market for cosmetics and toiletries reached nearly $150 billoin in 2004,increase by more then 4 percent 2003, which highlight major growth in key developing market.

The herbal market has been boosted by increasing demand for natural alternative medicines, world demand for herbal product has been growing at the rate of 10% -15% per annum. The medicinal plant related trade in india alone is approximately Rs.5.5 billion.World health organization (WHO) has forcasted that the global market for herbal product would be worth $5 trillion by the year 2050.Global sales of herbal product are expected to reach $26.2 billion dollars in 2007. Europe and the united states are the two major herbal product markets in the world, with a market share of 41 percant and 20 percent respectively.

According to world bank the global market of medicinal plant and their products includes the potential sectors of Pharmaceuticals, Neutraceutical, Cosmeceuticals to be estimated of worth US$62 billion, offers a plethora of opportunities for the Indian pharma and cosmetics companies.   

Today a new hot topic in the cosmetic industry is ‘cosmeceuticals’, which is the fastest growing segment of the natural personal care industry. Cosmeceuticals  are topical cosmetic pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance the beauty through ingredients that provide additional health-related function or  benefit. They are applied topically as cosmetics, but contain ingredients that influence the skin’s biological function.

These Cosmeceuticals, serving as a bridge between personal care products and pharmaceuticals, have been developed specifically for their medicinal and cosmetic benefits. Tracing the origin of cosmetics, the first recorded use of cosmetics is attributed to Egyptians, circa 4000 BC. The ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, and Hebrews also applied cosmetics.

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In other cases, such as European cosmetic known as Ceruse was used from the second century to the 19th century. Cosmeceutically active ingredients are constantly being developed by big and small corporations engaged in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, natural products, and cosmetics, while advances in the field and knowledge of skin biology and pharmacology have facilitated the cosmetic industry’s development of novel active compounds more rapidly. Desirable features of Cosmeceutical agents are efficacy, safety, formulation stability, novelty, and patent protection.

These cosmeceuticals serve as a bridge between personal care product, pharmaceutical and phyto-material. Cosmeceutically  active ingredient are now being used by large and small manufacturers engaged in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and natural extracts in cosmetics formulation. The advantage in the field of cosmetics and knowledge of skin biology and pharmacology have facilitated the formulation of cosmetics.5

CONSUMER TRENDS
Changes the gender divide the market share of men’s Cosmeceutical products is starting to be significant but they have long way to go before they rival those for women. A report published by the natural marketing institute NMI in 2007 showed that fastest growing segment today is the men’s Cosmeceuticals range. The demand for looking good and maintaining youthful healthy skin no longer just for women. The first major wave of men’s skin care product appeared in the mid 1990s and has since grown steadily to a projected $6 billion in sales for 2008.

Men are no longer embarrassed to shope for creams or admit their equal desire to look young. Anti aging skincare line for men can be designed using Cosmeceuticals ingredients such as vitamins, Phyto-chemicals, acids, anti-oxidants and essentials oils.The youngest age group being addressed for skin care are babies ,with baby Cosmeceutical products including sunscreens.6

HERBAL EXTRACTS USED IN COSMETICS
Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic preparations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant properties. These antioxidant botanicals are generally classified into three categories depending upon the nature of their constituents as Carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. The carotenoids are structurally related to vitamin A and constitute various retinols like retinoic acid. Flavonoids, in addition to the antioxidant action, impart the Uv protection and metal chelating properties. The polyphenolics is a large class and contains various molecules like rosemarinic acid , hypericin.

Turmeric
Turmeric (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) is best known as a spice used primarily in Asian cuisine, particularly curry, and in prepared mustard. It is also used in some traditional Indian communities as a topical burn treatment. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane), the key biologically active component of turmeric, has shown great potency against acute inflammation,and has been shown to exhibit significant wound healing and antioxidant properties.The paste of turmeric powder has been used as antiseptic and for skin nourishment. Curcumin the active compound of turmeric, is a polyphenol used in skin care preparations.

Aloe vera
It is also known as Lily of the desert or the Plant of Immortality. It is recommended for sunburn, minor burns, wrinkles, insect bites, skin irritations minor cuts and scratches. Research has shown that the clear gel has a dramatic ability to heal wounds, ulcers and burns by putting a protective coating on the affected areas .It also clears away blemishes protects the skin against infections and reduces wrinkles. It is also cited as being a prophylactic for dry skin, which is prone to inflammation, bacteriostatic.

Caffeine
Caffeine, consumed in popular beverages such as coffee and tea, as well as in certain foods, is thought to have significant anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Specifically, caffeine is believed to confer an anticarcinogenic effect after UVB exposure, chemically inducing apoptosis of UV-damaged cells, suggesting the potential for incorporation of caffeine in topical formulations intended for use.

Ferulic acid
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is pervasive in the plant world, and considered a potent antioxidant known to provide photoprotection to skin when it is incorporated into cosmetic lotions, sunscreens, and other skin products.  Further, it is believed to act synergistically with vitamins C and E and beta-carotene.

Chamomile
German chamomile (Matricaria recutita or Chamomilla recutita), one of the 12 most commonly used medicinal herbs,has been recognized for its therapeutic, soothing properties since the age of Hippocrates.chamomile exhibits some antioxidant activity.Chamomile is included in skin formulations as an emollient and to provide anti-inflammatory action for sensitive skin.7

Mechanism Action of skin
The skin is the outer covering of the body. It is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has multiple layers of ectodermaltissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals, except that it is not protected by a pelt. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it appears hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin. The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin". Skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

Skin components
Skin has mesodermal cells, pigmentation, or melaninprovided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation(UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA-repair enzymesthat help reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genesfor these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, malignantmelanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it to spreadquickly, and can often be deadly. Skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner.

Functions
Skin performs the following functions:
1.Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense, Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.

2.Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury, see somatosensory system and haptics.

3.Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.

4.Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.

5.Aesthetics and communication: others see our skin and can assess our mood, physical state and attractiveness.

6.Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.

7.Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.

Skin layers
Skin
is composed of three primary layers:
·   The epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection.
·   The dermis, which serves as a location for the appendages of skin.
·   The hypodermis subcutaneous adipose layer.

Layers
Epidermis is divided into several layers where cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin. They eventually reach the top layer called stratum corneum. This process is called keratinization and takes place within weeks. The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead cells.

Sublayers
Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:
•    Stratum corneum
•    Stratum lucidum
•    Stratum granulosum
•    Stratum spinosum
•    Stratum germinativum

Disease’s of skin

Vitiligo
Vitiligo is a condition in which areas of skin lose their normal pigment and so become white. It is common, and affects about 1% of the world’s population.The pigment that gives your skin its normal colour is melanin, which is made by cells known as melanocytes.

Scabies
Scabies is a common and very itchy skin condition caused by human scabies mites. It can affect people of any age but is most common in the young and the elderly. The mites that cause scabies are tiny parasites, smaller than a pinhead.  The rash of scabies is a mixture of scratch marks and red scaly areas; later it can become infected and develop small pus spots.  

Rosacea
Rosacea is a common rash, found on the central part of the face, usually of a middle-aged person. A tendency to flush easily is followed by persistent redness on the cheeks, chin, forehead and nose. The cause of rosacea is not fully understood, but many think that the defect lies in the blood vessels in the skin of the face, which dilate too easily.

Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a common skin problem affecting about 2% of the population. It occurs equally in men and women, at any age, and tends to come and go unpredictably. It is not infectious, and does not scar the skin. The skin is a complex organ made up of several different layers.

Melanoma
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin.  If it is treated early, the outlook is usually good.  It is not contagious. The word ‘melanoma’ comes from the Greek word ‘melas’, meaning black.  Melanin is the dark pigment that gives the skin its natural colour.

Eczema (Atopic Eczema)
Atopic eczema is an inflammatory condition of the skin. Atopic is the term used to describe conditions such as eczema, asthma, seasonal rhinitis and hay fever, which often have a genetic basis. Eczema is the term used to describe changes in the upper layer of the skin that include redness, blistering, oozing, crusting, scaling, thickening and sometimes pigmentation.8,9

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CLASSIFICATION OF HERBAL DRUG ON THE BASIS OF THEIR ACTION
Our skin is our body’s first line of defense against microbial invaders. Using herbs for skin is one of the best way we can take care of our skin. The skin contains one third of the body’s blood supply. A healthy persons has a smooth, supple, glowing complexion. A skin patients skin may be pull of blemishes or rough patches, their complexion may be gray, translucent, wexy.

The top supplement for our skin is water. Using herbs for skin help your skin and keep it in good condition.

Skin Cleansers for Smoothing and Astringency
*    Lavender
*    Rosemary
*    Rose
*    Calendula

All Purpose Skin Healers
*    Chamomile
*    Aloe
*    Allantion

Essential Oil for Skin
*    Lavender oil
*    Tea leaves oil

Abrasives and Exfoliate
*    Apricot
*    Oatmeal
*    Horsetail

Fresheners and Toners
*    Lavender
*    Lemon balm
*    Mint
*    Calendula ,rose
*    Chamomile

Astringent and Antibacterial
*    Aloe
*    Dandelion leaves
*    Tea tree oil

Moisturizers
*    Calendula
*    Rosemary
*    Chamomile
*    Lavender
*    Marigold

Relive Inflammation
*    Lavender
*    Rose water
*    Lady mantle

Blemishes
*    Basil , Tea
*    Comfrey

Burns
*    Aloe
*    Calendula
*    Acne
*    Artemisia
*    Basil
*    Pea
*    Pumpkin
*    Onion

Ant aging Treatment
*    Ginseng
*    Green and black tea
*    Grape seed extract
Anti-inflammatory Treatment
*    Chamomile
*    Fenugreek
*    Jojoba
*    Licorice root
*    Red clover

Skin protection
*    Aloe vera
*    Oats like oatmeal,bran10

HERBAL PLANT USED IN SKIN CARE

CommonName-  Ghikanawar
Botanical Name & Family-
Aloe vera  barbadensis
Family: Liliaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Anthraquinone glycoside, aloin carboxypeptidase salicylate components, c- glycosychromone.
Uses-
Leaf juice is applied on skin for smoothness, healing, controlling skin burns & sun burns.

Common Name- Garlic
Botanical Name & Family-
Allium sativam
Family:Aliaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Alliin, allicin, ajoene, vinyldithins, Diallyl disulphide, trisulphide, antioxidant,t-diallyl tetra, penta, hexa & hepta sulphides.
Uses-
Oil is used to treat sores,pimples and acne.

Common Name- Vetiver,cuscus, khus
Botanical Name & Family -
Andropogon muricatus
Family: Poaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Essential oil contains vetiselinenol of khusimol, sesquiterpenoids-vetidiol
Uses-
It is used to treat acne, cuts, eczema, dry skin, wounds, and aging skin. Powdered root paste is used to cure irritated skin and allergies.

Common Name- Bear berry
Botanical Name & Family-
Acrtostaphylos urva – ursi
Family: Eriaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Arbutin,tannins,flavonolglucoside, isoquercities, methyl  arbutin.
Uses-
Skin whitener, melanininhibitor, it is used for treat skin pigmentation, sunburns, freckles.

Common Name- Neem, margosa
Botanical Name & Family-
Azadirachta indica
Family: Meliaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Tetranortriterpenoids ,azadirachtin, diterpenes.
Uses-
It cures wounds, leprosy, skin diseases like acne, ulcers, hair problems.

Common Name- Flame of the forest, butea gum, Bengal kino
Botanical Name & Family-
Butea frondosa
Family: Fabaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Flavonoids, glucosides – butin, butrin, isobutrin & palastrin, coreopsin, mono spermoside , and  sulphurein & chalcones.
Uses-
Leaves extract is useful in pimples and seed extract for
fungal infection and bruises, flower extract for hair and skin conditioning.

Common Name- Pot-marigold, marigold, calendula
Botanical Name & Family-
Calendula officinalis
Family:Asteraceae
Chemical Constituents
Triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, carotenes, bitter, glycosides, resins, volatile oil, mucilage.
Uses
Flower extract is used for smoothening hair. It is used to cure acne, inflammation, and aging.

Common Name- Green tea
Botanical Name &
Family-Cammelia sinensis
Family: Theaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, methyl xanthines
Uses
Anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, photo aging, anti-acne.
Common Name-
Papaya, papaw
Botanical Name & Family-Carica papaya
Family:Caricaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Enzymes-Papain &chymopapains. Alkaloidscarpine & pseudocarpine, xpressin
Uses-
fruit pulp make skin soft and removes blemishes. It can be used for treating wrinkles, sunspots, age spots, acne problems.

Common Name- Asiatic ,pennywort,Indian pennywort
Botanical Name &
FamilyCentella asiatica
Family: Umbelliferae /Apiaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Brahmoside, asiaticoside, thankun iside, hydrocotyline alkaloid, velarin.
Uses-
Brahmoside, asiaticoside, thankuniside, Hydrocotyline alkaloid, velarin.
Whole plant extract is used for growth and maintenance of hair. It fights oxidation thereby improves skin firmness and elasticity

Common Name-Saffron cocus
Botanical Name &
FamilyCrocus sativus
Family: Iridaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Crocin, pirosin, crocetin, carotenoids, riboflavin, thiamine, terpenes, xanthone.
Uses-
It is used to treat skin diseases and dresses bruises. It moisturizes, soothes and promote fairness of skin. It treats dandruff and Nourishes hair.

Common Name – Turmeric
Botanical Name &
FamilyCurcuma longa
Family: Zingiberaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Curcuminoids, phenolic diaryl heptanoids, curcumin, monodesm ethoxycurcumin, turmerone, serquiterpene ketones.
Uses-
Rhizome powder possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidantproperties. It is used in treatment of skin and hair problems.

Common Name- Maiden hair tree kew tree
Botanical Name &
Family- Gingko biloba
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Chemical Constituents
Flavone glycosides, quercetin, kaempferol, terpenes.
Uses
Anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory

Common Name- Licorice,liquorice
Botanical Name &
FamilyGlycirrhiza glabra
Family:leguminosae
Chemical Constituents-
Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetincacid,is oflavonoids, chalcones, coumarins, triterpenoids
Uses-
Skin conditioning, smoothening, soothing, hair conditioning.

Common Name- Lavender
Botanical Name &
FamilyLavendula vera
Family:Labiatae/lamiaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Essential oil- linalool, linalyl acetate, borneol, camphor, lavandulyl , caryophyllene, limonene. Aerial parts-ursolic acid, lactone, betulin, betuliinic acid, 3 β formyl ursolic acid.
Uses-
It is cytophylactic and antiaging, refresher; it improves hair growth and texture. It cures many hair problems like dandruff.

Common Name- Chamomile
Botanical Name &
FamilyMatricaria chamomile
Family: Compositae/Asteraceae
Chemical Constituents-
α-bisabolol, azulenes,- chamazulene, guiazuline & matricine, flavonoids, patuletin, quercetin, spiroethers & coumarins
Uses-
Flowers are used as Hair tonic. Leaves extract is used for skin problems.

Common Name- Mint
Botanical Name &
Family- Mentha arvensis
Family: Labiatae
Chemical Constituents-
Menthol, menthone. α&β- pinene, α-thujene, l-limonene, β-phellandrene, furfural, methylcyclo hexanone,camphene.
Uses-
Acts against pigmentation and skin diseases and has as moisturizing, cooling, antiperspirant, anti-aging properties.

Common Name- Mango
Botanical Name &
FamilyMangifera indica
Family: Anacardiaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Citric and ascorbic acids, carotenoids ,
Phenolic compounds, flavonoids,β-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin, indicol, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol.
Uses-
It soothes, moisturizes, andregenerates skin cells. It is used to treat skin diseases.

Common Name- Camphor basil
Botanical  Name &
FamilyOcimum sanctum
Family:labiatae/ lamiaceae
Chemical Constituents –
Camphor, pinene, limonene,terpin olene, myrcene, β-phellandrene,linalool,camphene, p-cymene, borneol or α-selinene.

Uses-Leaf extract is useful tocontrol skin infection and rejuvenation. used as skin and hair conditioners.

Common Name- Almond
Botanical Name &
Family- Prunus amygdalus
Family: Rosaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Amandin, globulin, Oleum Amygdalae, oleic, palmitin, linoleic acids
Uses-
It is used for moisturizing and nourishing skin. It nourishes hair and promotes growth. Kernel extract is used in sun creams.

Common Name- Damask rose
Botanical Name &
FamilyRosa damascene
Family: Rosaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Quercetin, Kaempferol, Cyanidin, Lycopene, Rubixathin , Zeaxanthin, Xanthophyll, Citronellol, Geraniol, β-phenylethanol, eugenol.
Uses-
Essential oil from flowers is used for protection from sun burns and skin smoothening.

Common Name- White sandal wood
Botanical Name &
FamilySantalum album
Family: Santalaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Stillingia oil, palmitic, oleic, ellagic, galic acids,isoquercetrin, phloroacetophenone, 2, 4-dimethylether, moretenone, moretenol, tri terpene
Uses-
Paste of hardwood is used in face packs. Essential oil for Protection from sunburns. It is anti-oxidant.

Common Name- Sesame, gingelly
Botanical Name & Family- Sesamum indicum
Family:Pedaliaceae
Chemical Constituents- Sterols, lignans, sesamin, nitrolactone,
sesamolin, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, vitA, pyridoxine & ascorbic acid
Uses- Seed extract is used for skin protection and rejuvenation. Seed oil is used as base for hair oils.

Common Name- Cocoa, Theobroma
Botanical Name &
Family- Theobroma cacao
Family: Sterculiaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Methylxanthine, sulphur, magnesium, phenylethylamine, anandamide.
Uses-
Skin softener and conditioner, moisturizes, anti-wrinkle effect, restores flexibility.

Common Name- Winter cherry
Botanical Name &
Family- Withania somnifera Family: Solanaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Alkaloids-withanine,with ananine, pseudowithanine, somnine, somniferinine. with aferin-A.
Uses-
Whole plant extract is used for skin cleansing and antioxidant.

Common Name- Winter cherry
Botanical Name &
Family- Cocos nucifera Family:palmae/ Arecaceae
Common Name-
Winter cherry
Chemical Constituents-
Minerals like potassium, vitamins ,reducing sugars, totalsugars, brix
Uses-
It is used cure skin diseases and dandruff, it nourishes hair.

Common Name- Watermelon
Botanical Name &
Family-Citrullus vulgaris family: Cucurbitaceae
Chemical Constituents-
Citrullin, arginine, triterpene, bryonolic acid
Uses-
Additives in sun creams,seed oil works as restorative and nourishing for skin, Itcures acne, sebum secretion.11,12

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MATERIAL AND METHODS
The Turmeric and Aloe were collected from the local market of Dehrakhas, Dehradun in month of April. These items were purchased from the authentified shop “x y z Shop” Dehradun. Those item were checked by Mr. Nardev Singh,Assistant Professor, Division of Pharmaceutical Science, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun. 

Plant material

Aloe vera
Aloe vera
is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. there is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies. Medical uses of aloe vera are being investigated as well.


Chemical constituents
Aloe vera
leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones and anthraquinones, and various lectins.

Uses

Aloe vera may be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for example, show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing, while, in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations.

The cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns.Topical application of aloe vera may also be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. Although anecdotally useful, it has not been proven to offer protection from sunburn or suntan.

In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque, but no statistically significant difference was found between the two.

There is preliminary evidence that A. vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as mannans, anthraquinones and lectins.Internal intake of aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics although it has been suggested by the NTP that aloe may lower blood glucose levels.

It has also been linked with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients, but also with acute hepatitis (liver disease).13

Turmeric
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season.


When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.

Turmeric is commonly called Haridra in Sanskrit and Haldar or Haldi  in Hindi.

Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredient for many Indian, Persian and Thai dishes such as in curry and many more. Ancient Indian medicine, Ayurveda has recommended its use in food for its medicinal value, much of which is now being researched in the modern day. Its use as a coloring agent is not of primary value in South Asian cuisine.

Chemical constituents


Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 5% curcumin, a polyphenol. Curcumin is the active substance of turmeric and curcumin is known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.

It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions (pH<7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.

Uses
Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, arthritis, and other clinical disorders. As an example of preliminary laboratory research, turmeric ameliorated the severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice.Some research shows compounds in turmeric to have anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties, however, curcumin is not one of them.

Turmeric paste is traditionally used by Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair and as an antimicrobial. Turmeric paste, as part of both home remedies and Ayurveda, is also said to improve the skin and is touted as an anti-aging agent. Extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. THCs are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties, and might be used to treat skin inflammations, making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.

Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast (it fades with exposure to sunlight). However, turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.14

Almond Oil
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn.Prunus amygdalus Batsch., Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.), is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peachin the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.


The fruit of the almond is not a true nut, but a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed ("nut") inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are commonly sold shelled (i.e., after the shells are removed), or unshelled (i.e., with the shells still attached). Blanchedalmonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seed coat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.

Chemical constituents
The bitter almond is slightly broader and shorter than the sweet almond, and contains about 50% of the fixed oil that occurs in sweet almonds. It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on a soluble glucoside, amygdalin,yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde.

Bitter almonds may yield from 4–9 mg of hydrogen cyanide per almond. Extract of bitter almond was once used medicinally, but even in small doses, effects are severe, and in larger doses can be deadly; the cyanide must be removed before consumption.

Almonds contain approximately 49% oils, of which 62% is monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 24% is linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 6% is palmitic acid (a saturated fatty acid). The other main fatty acids contained in sweet almond oil are:myristic, palmitoleic, heptadecenoic, 9-heptadecenoic, stearic, linolenic, arachidic, eicosenoic.

Uses
Almonds are a rich source of vitamin E, About 20 percent of raw almond is high quality protein, a third of which are essential amino acids.

They are also rich in dietary fiber, B vitamins, essential mineralsand monounsaturated fat(see nutrient table), one of the two fats which potentially may lower LDL cholesterol. Typical of nuts and seeds, almonds also contain Phyto- sterols, associated with cholesterol-lowering properties.

Potential health benefits, which have not been scientifically validated, include improved complexionand possibly a lower risk of cancer. Preliminary research associates consumption of almonds with elevating blood levels of high density lipoproteinsand lowering low density lipoproteins.

A preliminary trial showed that, in spite of the high fat content of almonds, using them in the daily diet might lower several factors associated with heart disease, including cholesterol and blood lipids.

Almond oil is popular as base oil for massages because it's hypoallergenic and can be used on sensitive skin. It is good softener as well as gives a healthy radiant glow. It is Nourishing because almonds are a powerhouse of antioxidants, almond oil contains these beneficial nutrients that work to protect skin from environmental damageand boost the natural repair mechanisms in skin.15

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Rose oil
Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, with the absolute being used more commonly in perfumery. Even with their high price and the advent of organic synthesis, rose oils are still perhaps the most widely used essential oil in perfumery.


Two major species of rose are cultivated for the production of rose oil:
•    Rosa damascena, the damask rose, which is widely grown in Bulgaria, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, Iran and China
•    Rosa centifolia, the cabbage rose, which is more commonly grown in Morocco, France and Egypt

Chemical constituents
Citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalool, phenyl ethyl alcohol, farnesol, stearoptene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, camphene, β-caryophyllene, neral, citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, rose oxide, α-damascenone, β-damascenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, rhodinyl acetate and phenyl ethyl formate.

The key flavor compounds that contribute to the distinctive scent of rose oil, however, are beta-damascenone, beta-damascone, beta-ionone, and rose oxide. Beta-da

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