EVALUATION OF ANTIDOTE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF MUSA SAPIENTUM LINN. ON RATS

Pharma courses

pharma courses



3. Results
In acute toxicity studies, it was found that the animal were safe up to a maximum dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight. There were no changes in normal behavioral pattern and no signs and symptoms of toxicity and mortality were observed.

Physical behavioral study includes muscle relaxant, analgesic activity, locomotive activity which is given in table I, II and III. Study of muscle relaxant activity showed that the falling time of codeine treated animal was less in compare of normal control and standard treated animal (table I). It indicates that the codeine poisoning happened in negative treated animal and in test drug treated animal (aqueous and ethanolic) the falling time increases more than negative. It indicates that the musa sapientum have a curative effect in opioid poisoning.

In the study of analgesics activity the tail flick time of negative control animal was more in comparison to the both cases acute and chronic condition and the flick time of extract was greater than the negative and below to the control (table II). Standard drug treatment shows the effectiveness of the extract. The locomotive activity of negative group for acute and chronic was very less in comparison to the control and standard treated drug (tableIII). The alcoholic and aqueous extract locomotion activity comes above to negative and less than to the standard which suggests that the locomotion activity decreases due to the CNS depression. The extract results express the curative activity of musa sapientum leaf extract. The physical evaluation parameter gave a point that the project was in its positive way and musa leaf has the curative action in case of acute and chronic overdosing of opioid drugs.

It is accepted that the increase in plasma TG and TC is accepted with the opioid poisoning the translocation of TG and TC occurs in blood due to the CNS depression. From physiochemical parameter observation table it is clear indication that the TG and TC level are lower in the musa sapientum treated animals in comparison of codeine treated animal. From table IV the TG and TC level of acute group is high in negative group and the musa sapientum extract treated animal level is low in comparison of negative group and high to the standard treated and control animal. The same data is also for chronic group animals, it shows that the extract of musa sapientum leaf have protective action in the case of acute and chronic opioid poisoning.

Table I: Effect of Musa sapientum leaf extract on Muscle Relaxants Activity by     Inclined Plane Model in opium overdose.

S. No.

GROUP

FALLING TIME IN SECONDS Mean ± SEM

ACUTE

CHRONIC

1

Normal control

601.66  ±1.85

602.83 ± 2.38


2

Negative control

118.16  ± 1.57

a***

99.5 ± 3.31

a***

3

Standard

590.5    ± 2.70

a*,b***

581.5 ± 2.17

a***, b***

4

Test-1(aqueous)

323.83  ± 1.93

a***, b***, c***

307.0 ± 2.62

a***, b***, c***

5

Test-2(Alcoholic)

223.16  ±2.94

a***, b***, c***, d***

280.33  ± 1.58

a***, b***, c***, d***

Table II: Effect of Musa sapientum leaf extract on Analgesic activity by Tail flick Model in opium poisoning.

S. No.

GROUP

TAIL FLICK TIME IN SECONDS Mean ±SEM

ACUTE

CHRONIC

1

Normal control

4.16±0.30


4± 0.21


2

Negative control

7.5±0.22

a***

8.66 ±0.21

a***

3

Standard

4.6± 0.21

b***

4.5 ± 0.22

b***

4

Test-1(aqueous)

5.5± 0.22

a** ,b***

5.5 ± 0.22

a*, b***,c*

5

Test-2(Alcoholic)

5.1± 0.21

b***

4.83 ± 0.16

b***

Table III: Effect of Musa sapientum leaf extract on Locomotive Activity by Photoactometer  Model in opium poisoning.

S. No.

GROUP

NO. OF CROSSING IN 10 MINUTE Mean ±SEM

ACUTE

CHRONIC

1

Normal control

106.5 ± 1.17


104.16  ±0.60


2

Negative control

52.66 ± 1.33

a***

45.5  ± 0.76

a***

3

Standard

93.16 ± 0.94

a***,b***

92  ± 0.57

a***, b***

4

Test-1(aqueous)

76.16 ± 0.88

a***, b***,c***

66.33  ± 0.66

a***, b***,c***

5

Test-2(Alcoholic)

72.5 ± 076

a***, b***,c***,d*

62.5  ± 0.42

a***, b***,c***,d*

EVALUTION OF SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER

Table IV: Effect of  musa sapientum Leaf Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameter In Opium Poisoning For Acute Group.

S.N.

GROUP

TG (mg/dl) Mean ± SEM

TC (mg/dl) Mean ± SEM

1

Normal control

141.51 ± 1.11


110.64 ± 0.64


2

Negative control

160.86 ± 0.86

a***

160.92 ± 0.42

a***

3

Standard

144.59 ± 0.46

b***

120.87 ± 0.40

a***, b***

4

Test-1(aqueous)

154.15 ± 0.23

a***, b***, c***

134.20 ± 0.49

a***, b***, c***

5

Test-2(Alcoholic)

138.72 ± 1.30

b***,c**,d***

141.90 ± 0.23

a***, b***, c***, d***

Table V: Effect of Musa Sapientum Leaf Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameter in

Opium Poisoning For Chronic Group

S.N.

GROUP

TG (mg/dl) Mean ± SEM

TC (mg/dl) Mean ± SEM

1

Normal control

143.43 ± 0.48


112.44  ± 0.41


2

Negative control

339.35  ± 0.57

a***

214.341  ±0.24

a***

3

Standard

147.36  ± 0.30

a***, b***

133.00  ± 0.13

a***, b***

4

Test-1(aqueous)

172.46  ± 0.33

a***, b***, c***

165.75  ± 0.29

a***, b***, c***

5

Test-2(Alcoholic)

208.14  ± 0.61

a***, b***, c***, d***

169.12  ± 0.31

a***, b***, c*** d***

4.DISCUSSION
Recently a number of clinical studies suggests that the increase risk of Drug poisoning in Worldwide more than 9 million natural and synthetic chemicals have been identified fewer than 3000 cause more than 95% of accidental and deliberate poisonings all drugs, especially in large doses or when taken over long periods of time, can initiate a toxic condition. Certain drugs used in combination, such as alcohol and barbiturates, result in an intensified alteration of physiological state that is frequently dangerous. Drugs that affect the nervous system often  cause adverse reactions in high concentrations Opiate poisoning can occur at any time from birth when pethidine given to the mother in labour may suppress ventilation to terminal care.

In the case of opioid poisoning the CNS is affected first and most. The normal activity of the

CNS is depressed. The muscle is relaxed; analgesic effect happened very deeply, the movement of body slows down. The serum biological parameter is also changed in case of opioid poisoning. The level of triglyceride and total cholesterol is changed and increases from its normal level. (Smith, David, et al, 2001)

In the case of physical evaluation (muscle relaxant activity, analgesic and rotarod model) the data which comes gives a prediction.  The falling time of codeine treated animal was decreased in comparisons of normal and standard groups. The falling time of aqueous and alcoholic extract treated animal falls in between of codeine treated and standard drug treated animal. It shows the effect of extract is positive and dose effective dose was 300 mg/ body weight of rats. The reading of chronic group is less In case of codeine treated animal suggests the severity of opioid.

The tail flick time of negative group was more than the control and standard treated animals in the both cases acute and chronic condition and the flick time of extract was greater than the negative and below to the control. Standard drug treatment shows the effectiveness of the extract. The locomotive activity of negative group for acute and chronic was very less in comparison to the control and standard treated drug. The alcoholic and aqueous extract locomotion activity comes above to negative and less than to the standard which suggests that the locomotion activity decreases due to the CNS depression. The extract results express the curative activity of musa sapientum leaf extract. The physical evaluation parameter gave a point that the project was in its positive way and musa leaf has the curative action in case of acute and chronic overdosing of opioid drugs.

It is accepted that the increase in plasma TG and TC is accepted with the opioid poisoning the translocation of TG and TC occurs in bood due to the CNS depression. From physiochemical parameter observation table it is clear indication that the TG and TC level are lower in the musa sapientum treated animals in comparison of codeine treated animal. From table 7.7 the TG and TC level of acute group is high in negative group and the musa sapientum extract treated animal level is low in comparison of negative group and high to the standard treated and control animal. The same data is also for chronic group animals, it shows that the extract of musa sapientum leaf have protective action in the opioid poisoning.(dao.health.wa.gov.au)

Comparing the protective activity of the both extract in itself shows that the protective action of aqueous is more close to the ethanolic extract because the level of TG and TC are more close to the control animal in aqueous extract in comparison to alcoholic extract but both have prominent protective action. The study was designed to investigate the antidote activity of musa sapientum leaf extract in opium poisoning. Aqueous and ethnolic extract of leaves was administered in dose of 200mg/kg / day for 5 day in case of acute and 10 day in the case of chronic condition. Simultaneous administration of musa sapientum leaves extract significantly (p<0.001) prevent the rise serum level of total cholesterol, triglycerides.

The present study was designed to investigate the antidote activity of musa sapientum leaf extract in opium poisoning. In this study firstly I have to choose this plant because it having antioxidant activity after that was divided in to five groups shown in table. Then I gave the vehicle for first group, high dose of codeine for the 2nd nalaxone for third group and aqueous for 4th and alcoholic for 5th group till the end of 5 day for acute and 10 day for the chronic group. After the end of experimental period blood was withdrawn from retro orbit eye plexus of rat under ether anesthesia and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 30 min so at to get serum. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides HDL was estimate by using span diagnostic kit.

 5. Conclusion
In this study we finally conclude that both aqueous and ethanolic extract of musa sapientum at the dose of 300mg/kg have significant antidote activity. Aqueous extract have slightly more potency than alcoholic. Phytochemical screenings of musa sapeintum have reported the presence of lignin, alkaloids, tannin and glycosides as main chemical constituents. As for the phytochemical result the lignin may be responsible for the antidote activity and further is required for mechanism of action

References
*    Agarwal P.K., Singh A., Gaurav K., Goel S., Khanna H.D., Goel R.K. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2009;
*    Ahmad I., Beg A.Z. 2001. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74: 113–123.
*    Ercan, N., Nuttall, F.Q., Gannon, M.C., Lane, J.T., Burmesiter, L.A., Westphal, S.A. "Plasma glucose and insulin responses to bananas of varying ripeness in persons with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus" J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 1993.
*    Grollman AP, Jelakovi? B (November 2007). "Role of environmental toxins in endemic (Balkan) .
*    dao.health.wa.gov.au
*    Increasing deaths from opioid analgesics in the United Statesy 2006; 15: 618–627  
*    Kailash, P., Varalakshmi, P. "Effect of banana stem juice on biochemical changes in liver of normal and hyperoxaluric rats" Indian J. Exp. Biol., 30,440-442 (1992).
*    Kirtikar KR, Basu RD. Indian medicinal plants. 2nd ed. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 1981, pp 781-83.
*    Kokate C.K, Purohit A.P, pharmacognosy, 2007, 128
*    Larpin R, Vincent A, Perret C. Hospital morbidity and mortality of acute opiate intoxication. Presse Med 1990;19:1403–6.
*    Lee, S.K., Ng, L.L., Lee, S.I. "Experiments with banana trunk juice as a neuromuscular blocker" Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 58,591-594 (1980.)
*    Murphy NG, Benowitz NL, Goldschlager N. Cardiovascular toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 8.
*    OECD. Acute oral toxicity-acute oral toxic class method. Guideline 423, adopted 17.12.2001. In: Thirteenth Addendum to the OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Paris: organization for economic co-operation and development; 2000.
*    Paul Harris in Peshawar (November 25, 2001). "Victorious warlords set to open the opium floodgates". London: Observer.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
*    Position paper: whole bowel irrigation". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (6): 843–854. 2004. doi:10.1081/CLT-200035932. PMID 15533024.
*    Proft T (editor) (2009). Microbial Toxins: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-44-8.
*    Singh, Y.N., Inman, W.D., Johnson, A., Linnell, E. J. "Studies on the muscle-paralyzing components of the juice of the banana plant" Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther., 324, 105-113 (1993).
*    Singh, YJM., Dryden, W.F. "The augmenting action of banana tree juice on skeletal muscle contraction" Toxicon, 28,1229-1236 (1990).
*    Smith, David E. and Seymour Richard B., Clinician’s Guide to Substance Abuse, New York:
*    Sporer KA. Acute heroin overdose. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:584–9.
*    Suzanne Carr (1995). "MS thesis". Retrieved 2007-05-16. (citing Andrew Sherratt).
*    Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical (2004). "Position paper: cathartics". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (3): 243–253. doi:10.1081/CLT-120039801. PMID 15362590.
*    Tripathi K. D, essential of medicinal pharmacology, 2008, 455.
*    Usha, V., Vijayammal, P.L., Kurup, P.A. "Aortic glycosaminoglycans in antiatherogenic action of dietary fiber from unripe banana (Musa paradisiaca)" Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 143- 146(1991).
*    Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologist. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933–943.doi:10.1081/CLT-200045006. PMID 15641639.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


 

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES